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ArticleEvolving and sustaining ocean best practices and standards for the next decade(Frontiers Media, 2019-06-04) Pearlman, Jay ; Bushnell, Mark ; Coppola, Laurent ; Karstensen, Johannes ; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi ; Pearlman, Francoise ; Simpson, Pauline ; Barbier, Michele ; Muller-Karger, Frank E. ; Munoz-Mas, Cristian ; Pissierssens, Peter ; Chandler, Cynthia L. ; Hermes, Juliet ; Heslop, Emma ; Jenkyns, Reyna ; Achterberg, Eric P. ; Bensi, Manuel ; Bittig, Henry C. ; Blandin, Jerome ; Bosch, Julie ; Bourles, Bernard ; Bozzano, Roberto ; Buck, Justin J. H. ; Burger, Eugene ; Cano, Daniel ; Cardin, Vanessa ; Llorens, Miguel Charcos ; Cianca, Andrés ; Chen, Hua ; Cusack, Caroline ; Delory, Eric ; Garello, Rene ; Giovanetti, Gabriele ; Harscoat, Valerie ; Hartman, Susan ; Heitsenrether, Robert ; Jirka, Simon ; Lara-Lopez, Ana ; Lantér, Nadine ; Leadbetter, Adam ; Manzella, Giuseppe ; Maso, Joan ; McCurdy, Andrea ; Moussat, Eric ; Ntoumas, Manolis ; Pensieri, Sara ; Petihakis, George ; Pinardi, Nadia ; Pouliquen, Sylvie ; Przeslawski, Rachel ; Roden, Nicholas P. ; Silke, Joe ; Tamburri, Mario N. ; Tang, Hairong ; Tanhua, Toste ; Telszewski, Maciej ; Testor, Pierre ; Thomas, Julie ; Waldmann, Christoph ; Whoriskey, Frederick G.The oceans play a key role in global issues such as climate change, food security, and human health. Given their vast dimensions and internal complexity, efficient monitoring and predicting of the planet’s ocean must be a collaborative effort of both regional and global scale. A first and foremost requirement for such collaborative ocean observing is the need to follow well-defined and reproducible methods across activities: from strategies for structuring observing systems, sensor deployment and usage, and the generation of data and information products, to ethical and governance aspects when executing ocean observing. To meet the urgent, planet-wide challenges we face, methods across all aspects of ocean observing should be broadly adopted by the ocean community and, where appropriate, should evolve into “Ocean Best Practices.” While many groups have created best practices, they are scattered across the Web or buried in local repositories and many have yet to be digitized. To reduce this fragmentation, we introduce a new open access, permanent, digital repository of best practices documentation (oceanbestpractices.org) that is part of the Ocean Best Practices System (OBPS). The new OBPS provides an opportunity space for the centralized and coordinated improvement of ocean observing methods. The OBPS repository employs user-friendly software to significantly improve discovery and access to methods. The software includes advanced semantic technologies for search capabilities to enhance repository operations. In addition to the repository, the OBPS also includes a peer reviewed journal research topic, a forum for community discussion and a training activity for use of best practices. Together, these components serve to realize a core objective of the OBPS, which is to enable the ocean community to create superior methods for every activity in ocean observing from research to operations to applications that are agreed upon and broadly adopted across communities. Using selected ocean observing examples, we show how the OBPS supports this objective. This paper lays out a future vision of ocean best practices and how OBPS will contribute to improving ocean observing in the decade to come.
ArticleGlobal variability in seawater Mg:Ca and Sr:Ca ratios in the modern ocean(National Academy of Sciences, 2020-07-17) Lebrato, Mario ; Garbe-Schonberg, Dieter ; Müller, Marius N. ; Blanco-Ameijeiras, Sonia ; Feely, Richard A. ; Lorenzoni, Laura ; Molinero, Juan-Carlos ; Bremer, Karen ; Jones, Daniel O. B. ; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. Debora ; Greeley, Dana ; Lamare, Miles D. ; Paulmier, Aurelien ; Graco, Michelle ; Cartes, Joan ; Barcelos e Ramos, Joana ; de Lara, Ana ; Sanchez-Leal, Ricardo ; Jimenez, Paz ; Paparazzo, Flavio E. ; Hartman, Susan ; Westernströer, Ulrike ; Küter, Marie ; Benavides, Roberto ; da Silva, Armindo F. ; Bell, Steven ; Payne, Chris ; Olafsdottir, Solveig R. ; Robinson, Kelly ; Jantunen, Liisa M. ; Korablev, Alexander ; Webster, Richard J. ; Jones, Elizabeth M. ; Gilg, Olivier ; Bailly du Bois, Pascal ; Beldowski, Jacek ; Ashjian, Carin J. ; Yahia, Nejib D. ; Twining, Benjamin S. ; Chen, Xue-Gang ; Tseng, Li-Chun ; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou ; Dahms, Hans-Uwe ; Oschlies, AndreasSeawater Mg:Ca and Sr:Ca ratios are biogeochemical parameters reflecting the Earth–ocean–atmosphere dynamic exchange of elements. The ratios’ dependence on the environment and organisms' biology facilitates their application in marine sciences. Here, we present a measured single-laboratory dataset, combined with previous data, to test the assumption of limited seawater Mg:Ca and Sr:Ca variability across marine environments globally. High variability was found in open-ocean upwelling and polar regions, shelves/neritic and river-influenced areas, where seawater Mg:Ca and Sr:Ca ratios range from ∼4.40 to 6.40 mmol:mol and ∼6.95 to 9.80 mmol:mol, respectively. Open-ocean seawater Mg:Ca is semiconservative (∼4.90 to 5.30 mol:mol), while Sr:Ca is more variable and nonconservative (∼7.70 to 8.80 mmol:mol); both ratios are nonconservative in coastal seas. Further, the Ca, Mg, and Sr elemental fluxes are connected to large total alkalinity deviations from International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans (IAPSO) standard values. Because there is significant modern seawater Mg:Ca and Sr:Ca ratios variability across marine environments we cannot absolutely assume that fossil archives using taxa-specific proxies reflect true global seawater chemistry but rather taxa- and process-specific ecosystem variations, reflecting regional conditions. This variability could reconcile secular seawater Mg:Ca and Sr:Ca ratio reconstructions using different taxa and techniques by assuming an error of 1 to 1.50 mol:mol, and 1 to 1.90 mmol:mol, respectively. The modern ratios’ variability is similar to the reconstructed rise over 20 Ma (Neogene Period), nurturing the question of seminonconservative behavior of Ca, Mg, and Sr over modern Earth geological history with an overlooked environmental effect.