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Working PaperEXPORTS Measurements and Protocols for the NE Pacific Campaign(NASA STI Program and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-02) Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R. ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Buck, Kristen N. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Burd, Adrian B. ; Carlson, Craig A. ; Cassar, Nicolas ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Close, Hilary G. ; Craig, Susanne E. ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Durkin, Colleen A. ; Estapa, Margaret L. ; Fassbender, Andrea ; Fox, James ; Freeman, Scott ; Gifford, Scott M. ; Gong, Weida ; Graff, Jason R. ; Gray, Deric ; Guidi, Lionel ; Halsey, Kim ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Haëntjens, Nils ; Horner, Tristan J. ; Jenkins, Bethany D. ; Jones, Janice L. ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Kramer, Sasha J. ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Lee, Jong-Mi ; Liu, Shuting ; Mannino, Antonio ; Maas, Amy E. ; Marchal, Olivier ; Marchetti, Adrian ; McDonnell, Andrew M. P. ; McNair, Heather ; Menden-Deuer, Susanne ; Morison, Francoise ; Nelson, Norman B. ; Nicholson, David P. ; Niebergall, Alexandria K. ; Omand, Melissa M. ; Passow, Uta ; Perry, Mary J. ; Popp, Brian N. ; Proctor, Chris ; Rafter, Patrick ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Rubin, Edwina ; Rynearson, Tatiana A. ; Santoro, Alyson E. ; Siegel, David A. ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Soto Ramos, Inia ; Stamieszkin, Karen ; Steinberg, Deborah K. ; Stephens, Brandon M. ; Thompson, Andrew F. ; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S. ; Zhang, XiaodongEXport Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS) is a large-scale NASA-led and NSF co-funded field campaign that will provide critical information for quantifying the export and fate of upper ocean net primary production (NPP) using satellite information and state of the art technology.
ArticleMigratory zooplankton excreta and its influence on prokaryotic communities(Frontiers Media, 2020-12-01) Maas, Amy E. ; Liu, Shuting ; Bolaños, Luis M. ; Widner, Brittany ; Parsons, Rachel ; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B. ; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio ; Carlson, Craig A.Particulate organic matter (POM) (fecal pellets) from zooplankton has been demonstrated to be an important nutrient source for the pelagic prokaryotic community. Significantly less is known about the chemical composition of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) produced by these eukaryotes and its influence on pelagic ecosystem structure. Zooplankton migrators, which daily transport surface-derived compounds to depth, may act as important vectors of limiting nutrients for mesopelagic microbial communities. In this role, zooplankton may increase the DOM remineralization rate by heterotrophic prokaryotes through the creation of nutrient rich “hot spots” that could potentially increase niche diversity. To explore these interactions, we collected the migratory copepod Pleuromamma xiphias from the northwestern Sargasso Sea and sampled its excreta after 12–16 h of incubation. We measured bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) via high performance liquid chromatography and dissolved targeted metabolites via quantitative mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MSMS) to quantify organic zooplankton excreta production and characterize its composition. We observed production of labile DOM, including amino acids, vitamins, and nucleosides. Additionally, we harvested a portion of the excreta and subsequently used it as the growth medium for mesopelagic (200 m) bacterioplankton dilution cultures. In zooplankton excreta treatments we observed a four-fold increase in bacterioplankton cell densities that reached stationary growth phase after five days of dark incubation. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene amplicons suggested a shift from oligotrophs typical of open ocean and mesopelagic prokaryotic communities to more copiotrophic bacterial lineages in the presence of zooplankton excreta. These results support the hypothesis that zooplankton and prokaryotes are engaged in complex and indirect ecological interactions, broadening our understanding of the microbial loop.
ArticleDifferent carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules proxy compounds select distinct bacterioplankton for oxidation of dissolved organic matter in the mesopelagic Sargasso Sea(Wiley, 2020-01-23) Liu, Shuting ; Parsons, Rachel J. ; Opalk, Keri ; Baetge, Nicholas ; Giovannoni, Stephen J. ; Bolaños, Luis M. ; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B. ; Longnecker, Krista ; Lu, YueHan ; Halewood, Elisa ; Carlson, Craig A.Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) varies in its recalcitrance to rapid microbial degradation. DOM of varying recalcitrance can be exported from the ocean surface to depth by subduction or convective mixing and oxidized over months to decades in deeper seawater. Carboxyl‐rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM) are characterized as a major component of recalcitrant DOM throughout the oceanic water column. The oxidation of CRAM‐like compounds may depend on specific bacterioplankton lineages with oxidative enzymes capable of catabolizing complex molecular structures like long‐chain aliphatics, cyclic alkanes, and carboxylic acids. To investigate the interaction between bacteria and CRAM‐like compounds, we conducted microbial remineralization experiments using several compounds rich in carboxyl groups and/or alicyclic rings, including deoxycholate, humic acid, lignin, and benzoic acid, as proxies for CRAM. Mesopelagic seawater (200 m) from the northwest Sargasso Sea was used as media and inoculum and incubated over 28 d. All amendments demonstrated significant DOC removal (2–11 μmol C L−1) compared to controls. Bacterioplankton abundance increased significantly in the deoxycholate and benzoic acid treatments relative to controls, with fast‐growing Spongiibacteracea, Euryarcheaota, and slow‐growing SAR11 enriched in the deoxycholate treatment and fast‐growing Alteromonas, Euryarcheaota, and Thaumarcheaota enriched in the benzoic acid treatment. In contrast, bacterioplankton grew slower in the lignin and humic acid treatments, with oligotrophic SAR202 becoming significantly enriched in the lignin treatment. Our results indicate that the character of the CRAM proxy compounds resulted in distinct bacterioplankton removal rates of DOM and affected specific lineages of bacterioplankton capable of responding.
ArticleLinkages among dissolved organic matter export, dissolved metabolites, and associated microbial community structure response in the northwestern Sargasso Sea on a seasonal scale(Frontiers Media, 2022-03-08) Liu, Shuting ; Longnecker, Krista ; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B. ; Vergin, Kevin ; Bolaños, Luis M. ; Giovannoni, Stephen J. ; Parsons, Rachel J. ; Opalk, Keri ; Halewood, Elisa ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Johnson, Rodney J. ; Curry, Ruth G. ; Carlson, Craig A.Deep convective mixing of dissolved and suspended organic matter from the surface to depth can represent an important export pathway of the biological carbon pump. The seasonally oligotrophic Sargasso Sea experiences annual winter convective mixing to as deep as 300 m, providing a unique model system to examine dissolved organic matter (DOM) export and its subsequent compositional transformation by microbial oxidation. We analyzed biogeochemical and microbial parameters collected from the northwestern Sargasso Sea, including bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved amino acids (TDAA), dissolved metabolites, bacterial abundance and production, and bacterial community structure, to assess the fate and compositional transformation of DOM by microbes on a seasonal time-scale in 2016–2017. DOM dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site followed a general annual trend of DOC accumulation in the surface during stratified periods followed by downward flux during winter convective mixing. Changes in the amino acid concentrations and compositions provide useful indices of diagenetic alteration of DOM. TDAA concentrations and degradation indices increased in the mesopelagic zone during mixing, indicating the export of a relatively less diagenetically altered (i.e., more labile) DOM. During periods of deep mixing, a unique subset of dissolved metabolites, such as amino acids, vitamins, and benzoic acids, was produced or lost. DOM export and compositional change were accompanied by mesopelagic bacterial growth and response of specific bacterial lineages in the SAR11, SAR202, and SAR86 clades, Acidimicrobiales, and Flavobacteria, during and shortly following deep mixing. Complementary DOM biogeochemistry and microbial measurements revealed seasonal changes in DOM composition and diagenetic state, highlighting microbial alteration of the quantity and quality of DOM in the ocean.