Schick Robert S.

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Last Name
Schick
First Name
Robert S.
ORCID
0000-0002-3780-004X

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 10
  • Article
    Striking the right balance in right whale conservation
    (NRC Research Press, 2009-08-14) Schick, Robert S. ; Halpin, Patrick N. ; Read, Andrew J. ; Slay, Christopher K. ; Kraus, Scott D. ; Mate, Bruce R. ; Baumgartner, Mark F. ; Roberts, Jason J. ; Best, Benjamin D. ; Good, Caroline P. ; Loarie, Scott R. ; Clark, James S.
    Despite many years of study and protection, the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) remains on the brink of extinction. There is a crucial gap in our understanding of their habitat use in the migratory corridor along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Here, we characterize habitat suitability in migrating right whales in relation to depth, distance to shore, and the recently enacted ship speed regulations near major ports. We find that the range of suitable habitat exceeds previous estimates and that, as compared with the enacted 20 nautical mile buffer, the originally proposed 30 nautical mile buffer would protect more habitat for this critically endangered species.
  • Article
    Assessing North Atlantic Right whale health: a review of threats, and development of tools critical for conservation of the species
    (Inter Research, 2021-02-25) Moore, Michael J. ; Rowles, Teresa K. ; Fauquier, Deborah A. ; Baker, Jason T. ; Biedron, Ingrid S. ; Durban, John W. ; Hamilton, Philip K. ; Henry, Allison G. ; Knowlton, Amy R. ; McLellan, William A. ; Miller, Carolyn A. ; Pace, Richard M., III ; Pettis, Heather M. ; Raverty, Stephen A. ; Rolland, Rosalind M. ; Schick, Robert S. ; Sharp, Sarah M. ; Smith, Cynthia R. ; Thomas, Len ; van der Hoop, Julie M. ; Ziccard, Michael H.
    Whaling decimated North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis - NARW) since the 11th century and southern right whales (E. australis - SRW) since the 19th century. Today, NARWs are critically endangered and decreasing, whereas SRWs are recovering. We review NARW health assessment literature, NARW Consortium databases, and efforts and limitations to monitor individual and species health, survival, and fecundity. Photographs are used to track individual movement and external signs of health such as evidence of vessel and entanglement trauma. Post mortem examinations establish cause of death and determine organ pathology. Photogrammetry is used to assess growth rates and body condition. Samples of blow, skin, blubber, baleen and feces quantify hormones that provide information on stress, reproduction, and nutrition, identify microbiome changes, and assess evidence of infection. We also discuss models of the population consequences of multiple stressors, including the connection between human activities (e.g., entanglement) and health. Lethal and sublethal vessel and entanglement trauma have been identified as major threats to the species. There is a clear and immediate need for expanding trauma reduction measures. Beyond these major concerns, further study is needed to evaluate the impact of other stressors, such as pathogens, microbiome changes, and algal and industrial toxins, on NARW reproductive success and health. Current and new health assessment tools should be developed and used to monitor the effectiveness of management measures, and will help determine whether they are sufficient for a substantive species recovery.
  • Other
    North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium 2021 Annual Report Card
    (North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, 2023-01-05) Pettis, Heather M. ; Pace, Richard M., III ; Schick, Robert S. ; Hamilton, Philip K.
    The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) remains one of the most endangered large whales in the world. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in addressing the problems hampering the recovery of North Atlantic right whales by using innovative research techniques, new technologies, analyses of existing databases, and enhanced conservation and education strategies. This increased interest demanded better coordination and collaboration among all stakeholders to ensure that there was improved access to data, research efforts were not duplicative, and that findings were shared with all interested parties. The North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, initially formed in 1986 by five research institutions to share data among themselves, was expanded in 1997 to address these greater needs. Currently, the Consortium membership is comprised of representatives from more than 100 entities including: research, academic, and conservation organizations; shipping and fishing industries; whale watching companies; technical experts; United States (U.S.) and Canadian Government agencies; and state authorities. North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium members agreed in 2004 that an annual “report card” on the status of right whales would be useful. This report card includes updates on the status of the cataloged population, mortalities and injury events, and a summary of management and research efforts that have occurred over the previous 12 months. The Board’s goal is to make public a summary of current research and management activities, as well as provide detailed recommendations for future activities. The Board views this report as a valuable asset in assessing the effects of research and management over time.
  • Other
    North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium 2017 Annual Report Card
    (North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, 2023-01-05) Pettis, Heather M. ; Pace, Richard M., III ; Schick, Robert S. ; Hamilton, Philip K.
    The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) remains one of the most endangered large whales in the world. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in addressing the problems hampering the recovery of North Atlantic right whales by using innovative research techniques, new technologies, analyses of existing databases, and enhanced conservation and education strategies. This increased interest demanded better coordination and collaboration among all stakeholders to ensure that there was improved access to data, research efforts were not duplicative, and that findings were shared with all interested parties. The North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, initially formed in 1986 by five research institutions to share data among themselves, was expanded in 1997 to address these greater needs. Currently, the Consortium membership is comprised of representatives from more than 100 entities including: research, academic, and conservation organizations; shipping and fishing industries; whale watching companies; technical experts; United States (U.S.) and Canadian Government agencies; and state authorities. North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium members agreed in 2004 that an annual “report card” on the status of right whales would be useful. This report card includes updates on the status of the cataloged population, mortalities and injury events, and a summary of management and research efforts that have occurred over the previous 12 months. The Board’s goal is to make public a summary of current research and management activities, as well as provide detailed recommendations for future activities. The Board views this report as a valuable asset in assessing the effects of research and management over time.
  • Other
    North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium 2017 Annual Report Card Amended
    (North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, 2023-01-05) Pettis, Heather M. ; Pace, Richard M., III ; Schick, Robert S. ; Hamilton, Philip K.
    The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) remains one of the most endangered large whales in the world. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in addressing the problems hampering the recovery of North Atlantic right whales by using innovative research techniques, new technologies, analyses of existing databases, and enhanced conservation and education strategies. This increased interest demanded better coordination and collaboration among all stakeholders to ensure that there was improved access to data, research efforts were not duplicative, and that findings were shared with all interested parties. The North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, initially formed in 1986 by five research institutions to share data among themselves, was expanded in 1997 to address these greater needs. Currently, the Consortium membership is comprised of representatives from more than 100 entities including: research, academic, and conservation organizations; shipping and fishing industries; whale watching companies; technical experts; United States (U.S.) and Canadian Government agencies; and state authorities. North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium members agreed in 2004 that an annual “report card” on the status of right whales would be useful. This report card includes updates on the status of the cataloged population, mortalities and injury events, and a summary of management and research efforts that have occurred over the previous 12 months. The Board’s goal is to make public a summary of current research and management activities, as well as provide detailed recommendations for future activities. The Board views this report as a valuable asset in assessing the effects of research and management over time.
  • Other
    North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium 2020 Annual Report Card
    (North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, 2023-01-05) Pettis, Heather M. ; Pace, Richard M., III ; Schick, Robert S. ; Hamilton, Philip K.
    The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) remains one of the most endangered large whales in the world. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in addressing the problems hampering the recovery of North Atlantic right whales by using innovative research techniques, new technologies, analyses of existing databases, and enhanced conservation and education strategies. This increased interest demanded better coordination and collaboration among all stakeholders to ensure that there was improved access to data, research efforts were not duplicative, and that findings were shared with all interested parties. The North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, initially formed in 1986 by five research institutions to share data among themselves, was expanded in 1997 to address these greater needs. Currently, the Consortium membership is comprised of representatives from more than 100 entities including: research, academic, and conservation organizations; shipping and fishing industries; whale watching companies; technical experts; United States (U.S.) and Canadian Government agencies; and state authorities. North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium members agreed in 2004 that an annual “report card” on the status of right whales would be useful. This report card includes updates on the status of the cataloged population, mortalities and injury events, and a summary of management and research efforts that have occurred over the previous 12 months. The Board’s goal is to make public a summary of current research and management activities, as well as provide detailed recommendations for future activities. The Board views this report as a valuable asset in assessing the effects of research and management over time.
  • Other
    North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium 2019 Annual Report Card
    (North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, 2023-01-05) Pettis, Heather M. ; Pace, Richard M., III ; Schick, Robert S. ; Hamilton, Philip K.
    The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) remains one of the most endangered large whales in the world. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in addressing the problems hampering the recovery of North Atlantic right whales by using innovative research techniques, new technologies, analyses of existing databases, and enhanced conservation and education strategies. This increased interest demanded better coordination and collaboration among all stakeholders to ensure that there was improved access to data, research efforts were not duplicative, and that findings were shared with all interested parties. The North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, initially formed in 1986 by five research institutions to share data among themselves, was expanded in 1997 to address these greater needs. Currently, the Consortium membership is comprised of representatives from more than 100 entities including: research, academic, and conservation organizations; shipping and fishing industries; whale watching companies; technical experts; United States (U.S.) and Canadian Government agencies; and state authorities. North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium members agreed in 2004 that an annual “report card” on the status of right whales would be useful. This report card includes updates on the status of the cataloged population, mortalities and injury events, and a summary of management and research efforts that have occurred over the previous 12 months. The Board’s goal is to make public a summary of current research and management activities, as well as provide detailed recommendations for future activities. The Board views this report as a valuable asset in assessing the effects of research and management over time.
  • Other
    North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium 2018 Annual Report Card
    (North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, 2023-01-05) Pettis, Heather M. ; Pace, Richard M., III ; Schick, Robert S. ; Hamilton, Philip K.
    The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) remains one of the most endangered large whales in the world. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in addressing the problems hampering the recovery of North Atlantic right whales by using innovative research techniques, new technologies, analyses of existing databases, and enhanced conservation and education strategies. This increased interest demanded better coordination and collaboration among all stakeholders to ensure that there was improved access to data, research efforts were not duplicative, and that findings were shared with all interested parties. The North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, initially formed in 1986 by five research institutions to share data among themselves, was expanded in 1997 to address these greater needs. Currently, the Consortium membership is comprised of representatives from more than 100 entities including: research, academic, and conservation organizations; shipping and fishing industries; whale watching companies; technical experts; United States (U.S.) and Canadian Government agencies; and state authorities. North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium members agreed in 2004 that an annual “report card” on the status of right whales would be useful. This report card includes updates on the status of the cataloged population, mortalities and injury events, and a summary of management and research efforts that have occurred over the previous 12 months. The Board’s goal is to make public a summary of current research and management activities, as well as provide detailed recommendations for future activities. The Board views this report as a valuable asset in assessing the effects of research and management over time.
  • Article
    Seasonal gain in body condition of foraging humpback whales along the Western Antarctic Peninsula
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-11-21) Bierlich, K. C. ; Hewitt, Joshua ; Schick, Robert S. ; Pallin, Logan ; Dale, Julian ; Friedlaender, Ari S. ; Christiansen, Fredrik ; Sprogis, Kate R. ; Dawn, Allison H. ; Bird, Clara N. ; Larsen, Gregory D. ; Nichols, Ross ; Shero, Michelle R. ; Goldbogen, Jeremy ; Read, Andrew J. ; Johnston, David W.
    Most baleen whales are capital breeders that use stored energy acquired on foraging grounds to finance the costs of migration and reproduction on breeding grounds. Body condition reflects past foraging success and can act as a proxy for individual fitness. Hence, monitoring the seasonal gain in body condition of baleen whales while on the foraging grounds can inform how marine mammals support the costs of migration, growth, and reproduction, as well as the nutritional health of the overall population. Here, we use photogrammetry from drone-based imagery to examine how the body condition of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) changed over the foraging season (November to June) along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) from 2017 to 2019. This population (IWC stock G) is recovering from past whaling and is growing rapidly, providing an opportunity to study how whales store energy in a prey-rich environment. We used a body area index (BAI) to estimate changes in body condition and applied a Bayesian approach to incorporate measurement uncertainty associated with different drone types used for data collection. We used biopsy samples to determine sex and pregnancy status, and a length-based maturity classification to assign reproductive classes (n= 228; calves = 31, juveniles = 82, lactating females = 31, mature males = 12, mature unknown sex = 56, non-pregnant females = 12, pregnant females = 3, pregnant & lactating females = 1). Average BAI increased linearly over the feeding season for each reproductive class. Lactating females had lower BAI compared to other mature whales late in the season, reflecting the high energetic costs of nursing a calf. Mature males and non-pregnant females had the highest BAI values. Calves and juvenile whales exhibited an increase in BAI but not structural size (body length) over the feeding season. The body length of lactating mothers was positively correlated with the body length of their calves, but no relationship was observed between the BAI of mothers and their calves. Our study establishes a baseline for seasonal changes in the body condition for this humpback whale population, which can help monitor future impacts of disturbance and climate change.
  • Article
    Estimating the effects of stressors on the health, survival and reproduction of a critically endangered, long‐lived species
    (Wiley, 2023-02-06) Pirotta, Enrico ; Schick, Robert S. ; Hamilton, Philip K. ; Harris, Catriona M. ; Hewitt, Joshua ; Knowlton, Amy R. ; Kraus, Scott D. ; Meyer‐Gutbrod, Erin ; Moore, Michael J. ; Pettis, Heather M. ; Photopoulou, Theoni ; Rolland, Rosalind M. ; Tyack, Peter L. ; Thomas, Len
    Quantifying the cumulative effects of stressors on individuals and populations can inform the development of effective management and conservation strategies. We developed a Bayesian state–space model to assess the effects of multiple stressors on individual survival and reproduction. In the model, stressor effects on vital rates are mediated by changes in underlying health, allowing for the comparison of effect sizes while accounting for intrinsic factors that might affect an individual's vulnerability and resilience. We applied the model to a 50-year dataset of sightings, calving events and stressor exposure of critically endangered North Atlantic right whales Eubalaena glacialis. The viability of this population is threatened by a complex set of stressors, including vessel strikes, entanglement in fishing gear and fluctuating prey availability. We estimated that blunt and deep vessel strike injuries and severe entanglement injuries had the largest effect on the health of exposed individuals, reinforcing the urgent need for mitigation measures. Prey abundance had a smaller but protracted effect on health across individuals, and estimated long-term trends in survival and reproduction followed the trend of the prey index, highlighting that long-term ecosystem-based management strategies are also required. Our approach can be applied to quantify the effects of multiple stressors on any long-lived species where suitable indicators of health and long-term monitoring data are available.