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PreprintUsing Argo data to investigate the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the North Atlantic( 2009-08-06) Hernandez-Guerra, Alonso ; Joyce, Terrence M. ; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio ; Velez-Belchi, PedroUsing a variety of oceanographic data, including direct volume transports in the Florida 19 Strait, and Argo float profiles and drift velocities at 24 and 36N in the North Atlantic, inverse calculations are presented in which the net meridional transport, 20 down to a depth of approximately 1600 m, is estimated at both latitudes for a five year period 2003-2007. The upper ocean is divided into 7 layers using neutral density, and mass conservation constraints have been applied to a closed box bounded by these latitudes, including the Florida Strait. Ekman layer transports have been included in the top-most layer, and the inverse calculation has solved for changes from the initial reference velocities, Ekman and Florida Strait transports, given a priori estimates on the accuracy of each of these quantities. Solutions with and without transformations due to Mediterranean Water (MW) formation are made. Our results indicate that 1) time-averaged transport estimates derived from Argo have significant less eddy noise than individual hydrographic sections, 2) Argo drift velocities provide information to the inverse solution for the ocean interior, and 3) comparison of the total integrated interior mass transports in the thermocline waters for the period 2003-2007 with the previous estimates based on trans-ocean hydrographic sections shows that the Meridional Overturning Circulation has not significantly changed since 1957.
ArticleWind-driven cross-equatorial flow in the Indian Ocean(American Meteorological Society, 2012-12) Perez-Hernandez, M. Dolores ; Hernandez-Guerra, Alonso ; Joyce, Terrence M. ; Velez-Belchi, PedroMeridional velocity, mass, and heat transport in the equatorial oceans are difficult to estimate because of the nonapplicability of the geostrophic balance. For this purpose a steady-state model is utilized in the equatorial Indian Ocean using NCEP wind stress and temperature and salinity data from the World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) and Argo. The results show a Somali Current flowing to the south during the winter monsoon carrying −11.5 ± 1.3 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) and −12.3 ± 0.3 Sv from WOA05 and Argo, respectively. In the summer monsoon the Somali Current reverses to the north transporting 16.8 ± 1.2 Sv and 19.8 ± 0.6 Sv in the WOA05 and Argo results. Transitional periods are considered together and in consequence, there is not a clear Somali Current present in this period. Model results fit with in situ measurements made around the region, although Argo data results are quite more realistic than WOA05 data results.
ArticleThe Canary Basin contribution to the seasonal cycle of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26°N(John Wiley & Sons, 2015-11-07) Perez-Hernandez, M. Dolores ; McCarthy, Gerard D. ; Velez-Belchi, Pedro ; Smeed, David A. ; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio ; Hernandez-Guerra, AlonsoThis study examines the seasonal cycle of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and its eastern boundary contributions. The cycle has a magnitude of 6 Sv, as measured by the RAPID/MOCHA/WBTS project array at 26°N, which is driven largely by the eastern boundary. The eastern boundary variations are explored in the context of the regional circulation around the Canary Islands. There is a 3 month lag between maximum wind forcing and the largest eastern boundary transports, which is explained in terms of a model for Rossby wave generated at the eastern boundary. Two dynamic processes take place through the Lanzarote Passage (LP) in fall: the recirculation of the Canary Current and the northward flow of the Intermediate Poleward Undercurrent. In contrast, during the remaining seasons the transport through the LP is southward due to the Canary Upwelling Current. These processes are linked to the seasonal cycle of the AMOC.