Barclay David R.

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David R.

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Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Article
    Implosion in the Challenger Deep: echo sounding with the shock wave
    (Oceanography Society, 2021-04-19) Loranger, Scott ; Barclay, David R. ; Buckingham, Michael
    Since HMS Challenger made the first sounding in the Mariana Trench in 1875, scientists and explorers have been seeking to establish the exact location and depth of the deepest part of the ocean. The scientific consensus is that the deepest depth is situated in the Challenger Deep, an abyss in the Mariana Trench with depths greater than 10,000 m. Since1952, when HMS Challenger II, following its namesake, returned to the Mariana Trench, 20 estimates (including the one from this study) of the depth of the Challenger Deep have been made. The location and depth estimates are as diverse as the methods used to obtain them; they range from early measurements with explosives and stopwatches, to single- and multibeam sonars, to submersibles, both crewed and remotely operated. In December 2014, we participated in an expedition to the Challenger Deep onboard Schmidt Ocean Institute’s R/V Falkor and deployed two free-falling, passive-acoustic instrument platforms, each with a glass-sphere pressure housing containing system electronics. At a nominal depth of 9,000 m, one of these housings imploded, creating a highly energetic shock wave that, as recorded by the other instrument, reflected multiple times from the sea surface and seafloor. From the arrival times of these multi-path pulses at the surviving instrument, in conjunction with a concurrent measurement of the sound speed profile in the water column, we obtained a highly constrained acoustic estimate of the Challenger Deep: 10,983 ± 6 m.
  • Article
    Three-dimensional ambient noise modeling in a submarine canyon
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2019-09-30) Barclay, David R. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong
    A quasi-analytical three-dimensional (3D) normal mode model for longitudinally invariant environments can be used to compute vertical noise coherence in idealized ocean environments. An examination of the cross modal amplitudes in the modal decomposition of the noise cross-spectral density shows that the computation can be simplified, without loss of fidelity, by modifying the vertical and horizontal mode sums to exclude non-identical mode numbers. In the special case of a Gaussian canyon, the across-canyon variation of the vertical wave number associated with each mode allows a set of horizontally trapped modes to be generated. Full 3D and Nx2D parabolic equation sound propagation models can also be used to calculate vertical noise coherence and horizontal directionality. Intercomparison of these models in idealized and realistic canyon environments highlights the focusing effect of the bathymetry on the noise field. The absolute vertical noise coherence increases, while the zero-crossings of the real component of the coherence are displaced in frequency when out-of-plane propagation is accounted for.
  • Article
    Quantifying the contribution of ship noise to the underwater sound field
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2020-12-21) Shajahan, Najeem ; Barclay, David R. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong
    The ambient sound field in the ocean can be decomposed into a linear combination of two independent fields attributable to wind-generated wave action at the surface and noise radiated by ships. The vertical coherence (the cross-spectrum normalized by the power spectra) and normalized directionality of wind-generated noise in the ocean are stationary in time, do not vary with source strength and spectral characteristics, and depend primarily on the local sound speed and the geoacoustic properties which define the propagation environment. The contribution to the noise coherence due to passing vessels depends on the range between the source and receiver, the propagation environment, and the effective bandwidth of the characteristic source spectrum. Using noise coherence models for both types of the sources, an inversion scheme is developed for the relative and absolute contribution of frequency dependent ship noise to the total sound field. A month-long continuous ambient sound recording collected on a pair of vertically aligned hydrophones near Alvin Canyon at the New England shelf break is decomposed into time-dependent ship noise and wind-driven noise power spectra. The processing technique can be used to quantify the impact of human activity on the sound field above the natural dynamic background noise, or to eliminate ship noise from a passive acoustic monitoring data set.
  • Article
    Mapping of surface-generated noise coherence
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-12-19) Shajahan, Najeem ; Barclay, David R. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong
    The performance of a hydrophone array can be evaluated by its coherent gain, which depends on the spatial correlation of both the signal of interest and the background noise between different array elements, where one hopes to maximize the former while minimizing the latter with array signal processing. In this paper, a computational vertical noise coherence map of the first zero-crossing is generated near Alvin Canyon, south of Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, to study its dependence on the spatial variation in bathymetry, water column sound speed and sediment type. A two and three-dimensional Parabolic Equation propagation model based on reciprocity theory were used for the simulation. The results showed that the seabed parameters have the greatest impact on vertical noise coherence at the array location in the Alvin Canyon area, when compared to 3-D bathymetric and water column sound speed profile variability, especially in the shallower water. The analysis reveals the ideal spacing for a vertical hydrophone array for better signal detection in acoustic experiments. In the continental shelf and slope regions, the ideal spacing lies between 3λ⁄8 in deep water and λ⁄2 in shallow water, and for areas with strong bathymetric variations the ideal spacing can be determined by comprehensive numerical models.