Maenner-Jones Stacy

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  • Article
    Autonomous seawater pCO2 and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trends
    (Copernicus Publications, 2019-03-26) Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Feely, Richard A. ; Maenner-Jones, Stacy ; Musielwicz, Sylvia ; Osborne, John ; Dietrich, Colin ; Monacci, Natalie ; Cross, Jessica N. ; Bott, Randy ; Kozyr, Alex ; Andersson, Andreas J. ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Cai, Wei-Jun ; Cronin, Meghan F. ; De Carlo, Eric H. ; Hales, Burke ; Howden, Stephan D. ; Lee, Charity M. ; Manzello, Derek P. ; McPhaden, Michael J. ; Meléndez, Melissa ; Mickett, John B. ; Newton, Jan A. ; Noakes, Scott ; Noh, Jae Hoon ; Olafsdottir, Solveig R. ; Salisbury, Joseph E. ; Send, Uwe ; Trull, Thomas W. ; Vandemark, Douglas ; Weller, Robert A.
    Ship-based time series, some now approaching over 3 decades long, are critical climate records that have dramatically improved our ability to characterize natural and anthropogenic drivers of ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake and biogeochemical processes. Advancements in autonomous marine carbon sensors and technologies over the last 2 decades have led to the expansion of observations at fixed time series sites, thereby improving the capability of characterizing sub-seasonal variability in the ocean. Here, we present a data product of 40 individual autonomous moored surface ocean pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) time series established between 2004 and 2013, 17 also include autonomous pH measurements. These time series characterize a wide range of surface ocean carbonate conditions in different oceanic (17 sites), coastal (13 sites), and coral reef (10 sites) regimes. A time of trend emergence (ToE) methodology applied to the time series that exhibit well-constrained daily to interannual variability and an estimate of decadal variability indicates that the length of sustained observations necessary to detect statistically significant anthropogenic trends varies by marine environment. The ToE estimates for seawater pCO2 and pH range from 8 to 15 years at the open ocean sites, 16 to 41 years at the coastal sites, and 9 to 22 years at the coral reef sites. Only two open ocean pCO2 time series, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station (WHOTS) in the subtropical North Pacific and Stratus in the South Pacific gyre, have been deployed longer than the estimated trend detection time and, for these, deseasoned monthly means show estimated anthropogenic trends of 1.9±0.3 and 1.6±0.3 µatm yr−1, respectively. In the future, it is possible that updates to this product will allow for the estimation of anthropogenic trends at more sites; however, the product currently provides a valuable tool in an accessible format for evaluating climatology and natural variability of surface ocean carbonate chemistry in a variety of regions. Data are available at and (Sutton et al., 2018).
  • Technical Report
    Stratus Ocean Reference Station (20˚S, 85˚W) : mooring recovery and deployment cruise, R/V Ronald H. Brown Cruise 06-07, October 9–October 27, 2006
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2007-02) Bigorre, Sebastien P. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Lord, Jeffrey ; Whelan, Sean P. ; Galbraith, Nancy R. ; Wolfe, Dan ; Bariteau, Ludovic ; Ghate, Virendra P. ; Zajaczkovski, Uriel ; Vera, Alvaro ; Maenner, Stacy ; Hoyt, Brett
    The Ocean Reference Station at 20°S, 85°W under the stratus clouds west of northern Chile is being maintained to provide ongoing, climate-quality records of surface meteorology, of air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum, and of upper ocean temperature, salinity, and velocity variability. The Stratus Ocean Reference Station (ORS Stratus) is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations (NOAA) Climate Observation Program. It is recovered and redeployed annually, with cruises that have come between October and December. During the October 2006 cruise of NOAA's R/V Ronald H. Brown to the ORS Stratus site, the primary activities where recovery of the Stratus 6 WHOI surface mooring that had been deployed in October 2005, deployment of a new (Stratus 7) WHOI surface mooring at that site, in-situ calibration of the buoy meteorological sensors by comparison with instrumentation pub on board by staff of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL, formerly ETL), and observations of the stratus clouds and lower atmosphere by NOAA ESRL. A buoy for the Pacific tsunami warning system was also serviced in collaboration with the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA). The old DART (Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami) buoy was recovered and a new one deployed which carried IMET sensors and subsurface oceanographic instruments. Argo floats and drifters were also launched and CTD casts carried out during the cruise. The ORS Stratus buoys are equipped with two Improved Meteorological (IMET) systems, which provide surface wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, incoming shortwave radiation, incoming longwave radiation, precipitation rate, and sea surface temperature. The IMET data are made available in near real time using satellite telemetry. The mooring line carries instruments to measure ocean salinity, temperature, and currents. The ESRL instrumentation used during the 2006 cruise included cloud radar, radiosonde balloons, and sensors for mean and turbulent surface meteorology. Stratus 7 also received a new addition to its set of sensors: a partial CO2 detector from the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL). Aerosol measurements were also carried out onboard RHB by personnel of the University of Hawaii. Finally, the cruise hosted a teacher participating in NOAA's Teacher at Sea Program.