Bates Nicholas R.

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Nicholas R.

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  • Article
    Biogeochemical responses to late-winter storms in the Sargasso Sea, I - Pulses of primary and new production
    (Elsevier B.V., 2008-09-17) Lomas, Michael W. ; Lipschultz, Fredric ; Nelson, David M. ; Krause, Jeffrey W. ; Bates, Nicholas R.
  • Article
    Tracer-based assessment of the origin and biogeochemical transformation of a cyclonic eddy in the Sargasso Sea
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-10-11) Li, Qian P. ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Johnson, Rodney J.
    Mechanisms of nutrient supply in oligotrophic ocean systems remain inadequately understood and quantified. In the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, for example, the observed rates of new production are apparently not balanced by nutrient supply via vertical mixing. Mesoscale eddies have been hypothesized as a mechanism for vertical nutrient pumping into the euphotic zone, but the full range and magnitude of biogeochemical impacts by eddies remain uncertain. We evaluated a cyclonic eddy located near Bermuda for its effect on water column biogeochemistry. In the density range σ θ 26.1 to 26.7, an eddy core with anomalous salinity, temperature, and biogeochemical properties was observed, suggesting that the eddy was not formed with local water (i.e., not formed of the waters surrounding the eddy at the time of observations), hence complicating efforts to quantify biogeochemical processes in the eddy. We combined conservative hydrographic tracers (density versus potential temperature and salinity) and quasi-conservative biogeochemical tracers (density versus NO, PO, and total organic carbon) to propose the origin of the eddy core water to have been several hundred kilometers to the southeast of the eddy location at sampling. By comparing the observed eddy core's biogeochemical properties with those near the proposed origin, we estimate the net changes in biogeochemical properties that occurred. A conservative estimate of export was 0.5 ± 0.34 mol N m−2 via sinking particles, with export occurring prior to our period of direct observation. Our results suggest that biogeochemical signals induced by mesoscale eddies could survive to be transported over long distances, thus providing a mechanism for lateral fluxes of nutrients and AOU (apparent oxygen utilization). Given that the proposed source area of this eddy is relatively broad, and the eddy-mixing history before our sampling is unknown, uncertainty remains in our assessment of the true biogeochemical impact of mesoscale eddies in the gyre.
  • Article
    The impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the uptake and accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 by North Atlantic Ocean mode waters
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-09-21) Levine, Naomi M. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Feely, Richard A.
    The North Atlantic Ocean accounts for about 25% of the global oceanic anthropogenic carbon sink. This basin experiences significant interannual variability primarily driven by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). A suite of biogeochemical model simulations is used to analyze the impact of interannual variability on the uptake and storage of contemporary and anthropogenic carbon (Canthro) in the North Atlantic Ocean. Greater winter mixing during positive NAO years results in increased mode water formation and subsequent increases in subtropical and subpolar Canthro inventories. Our analysis suggests that changes in mode water Canthro inventories are primarily due to changes in water mass volumes driven by variations in water mass transformation rates rather than local air-sea CO2 exchange. This suggests that a significant portion of anthropogenic carbon found in the ocean interior may be derived from surface waters advected into water formation regions rather than from local gas exchange. Therefore, changes in climate modes, such as the NAO, may alter the residence time of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean by altering the rate of water mass transformation. In addition, interannual variability in Canthro storage increases the difficulty of Canthro detection and attribution through hydrographic observations, which are limited by sparse sampling of subsurface waters in time and space.
  • Article
    Eddy transport of organic carbon and nutrients from the Chukchi Shelf : impact on the upper halocline of the western Arctic Ocean
    (American Geophysical Union, 2007-05-04) Mathis, Jeremy T. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Kadko, David ; Bates, Nicholas R.
    In September 2004 a detailed physical and chemical survey was conducted on an anticyclonic, cold-core eddy located seaward of the Chukchi Shelf in the western Arctic Ocean. The eddy had a diameter of ∼16 km and was centered at a depth of ∼160 m between the 1000 and 1500 m isobaths over the continental slope. The water in the core of the eddy (total volume of 25 km3) was of Pacific origin, and contained elevated concentrations of nutrients, organic carbon, and suspended particles. The feature, which likely formed from the boundary current along the edge of the Chukchi Shelf, provides a mechanism for transport of carbon, oxygen, and nutrients directly into the upper halocline of the Canada Basin. Nutrient concentrations in the eddy core were elevated compared to waters of similar density in the deep Canada Basin: silicate (+20 μmol L−1), nitrate (+5 μmol L−1), and phosphate (+0.4 μmol L−1). Organic carbon in the eddy core was also elevated: POC (+3.8 μmol L−1) and DOC (+11 μmol L−1). From these observations, the eddy contained 1.25 × 109 moles Si, 4.5 × 108 moles NO3 −, 5.5 × 107 moles PO3 −, 1.2 × 108 moles POC, and 1.9 × 109 moles DOC, all available for transport to the interior of the Canada Basin. This suggests that such eddies likely play a significant role in maintaining the nutrient maxima observed in the upper halocline. Assuming that shelf-to-basin eddy transport is the dominant renewal mechanism for waters of the upper halocline, remineralization of the excess organic carbon transported into the interior would consume 6.70 × 1010 moles of O2, or one half the total oxygen consumption anticipated arising from all export processes impacting the upper halocline.
  • Article
    Autonomous seawater pCO2 and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trends
    (Copernicus Publications, 2019-03-26) Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Feely, Richard A. ; Maenner-Jones, Stacy ; Musielwicz, Sylvia ; Osborne, John ; Dietrich, Colin ; Monacci, Natalie ; Cross, Jessica N. ; Bott, Randy ; Kozyr, Alex ; Andersson, Andreas J. ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Cai, Wei-Jun ; Cronin, Meghan F. ; De Carlo, Eric H. ; Hales, Burke ; Howden, Stephan D. ; Lee, Charity M. ; Manzello, Derek P. ; McPhaden, Michael J. ; Meléndez, Melissa ; Mickett, John B. ; Newton, Jan A. ; Noakes, Scott ; Noh, Jae Hoon ; Olafsdottir, Solveig R. ; Salisbury, Joseph E. ; Send, Uwe ; Trull, Thomas W. ; Vandemark, Douglas ; Weller, Robert A.
    Ship-based time series, some now approaching over 3 decades long, are critical climate records that have dramatically improved our ability to characterize natural and anthropogenic drivers of ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake and biogeochemical processes. Advancements in autonomous marine carbon sensors and technologies over the last 2 decades have led to the expansion of observations at fixed time series sites, thereby improving the capability of characterizing sub-seasonal variability in the ocean. Here, we present a data product of 40 individual autonomous moored surface ocean pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) time series established between 2004 and 2013, 17 also include autonomous pH measurements. These time series characterize a wide range of surface ocean carbonate conditions in different oceanic (17 sites), coastal (13 sites), and coral reef (10 sites) regimes. A time of trend emergence (ToE) methodology applied to the time series that exhibit well-constrained daily to interannual variability and an estimate of decadal variability indicates that the length of sustained observations necessary to detect statistically significant anthropogenic trends varies by marine environment. The ToE estimates for seawater pCO2 and pH range from 8 to 15 years at the open ocean sites, 16 to 41 years at the coastal sites, and 9 to 22 years at the coral reef sites. Only two open ocean pCO2 time series, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station (WHOTS) in the subtropical North Pacific and Stratus in the South Pacific gyre, have been deployed longer than the estimated trend detection time and, for these, deseasoned monthly means show estimated anthropogenic trends of 1.9±0.3 and 1.6±0.3 µatm yr−1, respectively. In the future, it is possible that updates to this product will allow for the estimation of anthropogenic trends at more sites; however, the product currently provides a valuable tool in an accessible format for evaluating climatology and natural variability of surface ocean carbonate chemistry in a variety of regions. Data are available at and (Sutton et al., 2018).
  • Article
    The CLIMODE field campaign : observing the cycle of convection and restratification over the Gulf Stream
    (American Meteorological Society, 2009-09) Marshall, John C. ; Ferrari, Raffaele ; Forget, Gael ; Andersson, A. ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Dewar, William K. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Fratantoni, David M. ; Joyce, Terrence M. ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Toole, John M. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Edson, James B. ; Gregg, M. C. ; Kelly, Kathryn A. ; Lozier, M. Susan ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Lumpkin, Rick ; Samelson, Roger M. ; Skyllingstad, Eric D. ; Silverthorne, Katherine E. ; Talley, Lynne D. ; Thomas, Leif N.
    A major oceanographic field experiment is described, which is designed to observe, quantify, and understand the creation and dispersal of weakly stratified fluid known as “mode water” in the region of the Gulf Stream. Formed in the wintertime by convection driven by the most intense air–sea fluxes observed anywhere over the globe, the role of mode waters in the general circulation of the subtropical gyre and its biogeo-chemical cycles is also addressed. The experiment is known as the CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamic Experiment (CLIMODE). Here we review the scientific objectives of the experiment and present some preliminary results.
  • Article
    Challenges of modeling depth-integrated marine primary productivity over multiple decades : a case study at BATS and HOT
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-09-15) Saba, Vincent S. ; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M. ; Carr, Mary-Elena ; Antoine, David ; Armstrong, Robert A. ; Asanuma, Ichio ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Bennington, Val ; Bopp, Laurent ; Bruggeman, Jorn ; Buitenhuis, Erik T. ; Church, Matthew J. ; Ciotti, Aurea M. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dowell, Mark ; Dunne, John P. ; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie ; Gregg, Watson ; Hoepffner, Nicolas ; Hyde, Kimberly J. W. ; Ishizaka, Joji ; Kameda, Takahiko ; Karl, David M. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Lomas, Michael W. ; Marra, John F. ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Melin, Frederic ; Moore, J. Keith ; Morel, Andre ; O'Reilly, John ; Salihoglu, Baris ; Scardi, Michele ; Smyth, Tim J. ; Tang, Shilin ; Tjiputra, Jerry ; Uitz, Julia ; Vichi, Marcello ; Waters, Kirk ; Westberry, Toby K. ; Yool, Andrew
    The performance of 36 models (22 ocean color models and 14 biogeochemical ocean circulation models (BOGCMs)) that estimate depth-integrated marine net primary productivity (NPP) was assessed by comparing their output to in situ 14C data at the Bermuda Atlantic Time series Study (BATS) and the Hawaii Ocean Time series (HOT) over nearly two decades. Specifically, skill was assessed based on the models' ability to estimate the observed mean, variability, and trends of NPP. At both sites, more than 90% of the models underestimated mean NPP, with the average bias of the BOGCMs being nearly twice that of the ocean color models. However, the difference in overall skill between the best BOGCM and the best ocean color model at each site was not significant. Between 1989 and 2007, in situ NPP at BATS and HOT increased by an average of nearly 2% per year and was positively correlated to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation index. The majority of ocean color models produced in situ NPP trends that were closer to the observed trends when chlorophyll-a was derived from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), rather than fluorometric or SeaWiFS data. However, this was a function of time such that average trend magnitude was more accurately estimated over longer time periods. Among BOGCMs, only two individual models successfully produced an increasing NPP trend (one model at each site). We caution against the use of models to assess multiannual changes in NPP over short time periods. Ocean color model estimates of NPP trends could improve if more high quality HPLC chlorophyll-a time series were available.
  • Preprint
    The influence of winter water on phytoplankton blooms in the Chukchi Sea
    ( 2015-06) Lowry, Kate E. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Mills, Matthew M. ; Brown, Zachary W. ; van Dijken, Gert L. ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Arrigo, Kevin R.
    The flow of nutrient-rich winter water (WW) through the Chukchi Sea plays an important and previously uncharacterized role in sustaining summer phytoplankton blooms. Using hydrographic and biogeochemical data collected as part of the ICESCAPE program (June-July 2010-11), we examined phytoplankton bloom dynamics in relation to the distribution and circulation of WW (defined as water with potential temperature ≤ -1.6°C) across the Chukchi shelf. Characterized by high concentrations of nitrate (mean: 12.3 ± 5.13 μmol L-1) that typically limits primary production in this region, WW was correlated with extremely high phytoplankton biomass, with mean chlorophyll a concentrations that were three-fold higher in WW (8.64 ± 9.75 μg L-1) than in adjacent warmer water (2.79 ± 5.58 μg L-1). Maximum chlorophyll a concentrations (~30 μg L-1) were typically positioned at the interface between nutrient-rich WW and shallower, warmer water with more light availability. Comparing satellite-based calculations of open water duration to phytoplankton biomass, nutrient concentrations, and oxygen saturation revealed widespread evidence of under-ice blooms prior to our sampling, with biogeochemical properties indicating that blooms had already terminated in many places where WW was no longer present. Our results suggest that summer phytoplankton blooms are sustained for a longer duration along the pathways of nutrient-rich WW and that biological hotspots in this region (e.g. the mouth of Barrow Canyon) are largely driven by the flow and confluence of these extremely productive pathways of WW that flow across the Chukchi shelf.
  • Article
    Ocean circulation and biogeochemistry moderate interannual and decadal surface water pH changes in the Sargasso Sea
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-06-25) Goodkin, Nathalie F. ; Wang, Bo-Shian ; You, Chen-Feng ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Prouty, Nancy G. ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Doney, Scott C.
    The oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere, lowering surface ocean pH, a concern for calcifying marine organisms. The impact of ocean acidification is challenging to predict as each species appears to respond differently and because our knowledge of natural changes to ocean pH is limited in both time and space. Here we reconstruct 222 years of biennial seawater pH variability in the Sargasso Sea from a brain coral, Diploria labyrinthiformis. Using hydrographic data from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study and the coral-derived pH record, we are able to differentiate pH changes due to surface temperature versus those from ocean circulation and biogeochemical changes. We find that ocean pH does not simply reflect atmospheric CO2 trends but rather that circulation/biogeochemical changes account for >90% of pH variability in the Sargasso Sea and more variability in the last century than would be predicted from anthropogenic uptake of CO2 alone.
  • Article
    Factors regulating the Great Calcite Belt in the Southern Ocean and its biogeochemical significance
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-08-10) Balch, William M. ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Twining, Benjamin S. ; Rosengard, Sarah Z. ; Bowler, Bruce C. ; Drapeau, David T. ; Garley, Rebecca ; Lubelczyk, Laura C. ; Mitchell, Catherine ; Rauschenberg, Sara
    The Great Calcite Belt (GCB) is a region of elevated surface reflectance in the Southern Ocean (SO) covering ~16% of the global ocean and is thought to result from elevated, seasonal concentrations of coccolithophores. Here we describe field observations and experiments from two cruises that crossed the GCB in the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the SO. We confirm the presence of coccolithophores, their coccoliths, and associated optical scattering, located primarily in the region of the subtropical, Agulhas, and Subantarctic frontal regions. Coccolithophore-rich regions were typically associated with high-velocity frontal regions with higher seawater partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2) than the atmosphere, sufficient to reverse the direction of gas exchange to a CO2 source. There was no calcium carbonate (CaCO3) enhancement of particulate organic carbon (POC) export, but there were increased POC transfer efficiencies in high-flux particulate inorganic carbon regions. Contemporaneous observations are synthesized with results of trace-metal incubation experiments, 234Th-based flux estimates, and remotely sensed observations to generate a mandala that summarizes our understanding about the factors that regulate the location of the GCB.
  • Article
    An assessment of the Atlantic and Arctic sea–air CO2 fluxes, 1990–2009
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2013-01-29) Schuster, Ute ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Doney, Scott C. ; Fay, A. R. ; Gonzalez-Davila, M. ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Jones, S. ; Krijnen, J. ; Landschutzer, Peter ; Lefevre, N. ; Manizza, Manfredi ; Mathis, Jeremy T. ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Olsen, Are ; Rios, Aida F. ; Rodenbeck, C. ; Santana-Casiano, J. M. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Watson, Andrew J.
    The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea–air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea–air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea–air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is −0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1, and by the Arctic it is −0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1, leading to a combined sea–air flux of −0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.
  • Article
    Revising upper-ocean sulfur dynamics near Bermuda : new lessons from 3 years of concentration and rate measurements
    (CSIRO Publishing, 2015-11-10) Levine, Naomi M. ; Toole, Dierdre A. ; Neeley, Aimee ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dacey, John W. H.
    Oceanic biogeochemical cycling of dimethylsulfide (DMS), and its precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), has gained considerable attention over the past three decades because of the potential role of DMS in climate mediation. Here we report 3 years of monthly vertical profiles of organic sulfur cycle concentrations (DMS, particulate DMSP (DMSPp) and dissolved DMSP (DMSPd)) and rates (DMSPd consumption, biological DMS consumption and DMS photolysis) from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site taken between 2005 and 2008. Concentrations confirm the summer paradox with mixed layer DMS peaking ~90 days after peak DMSPp and ~50 days after peak DMSPp : Chl. A small decline in mixed layer DMS was observed relative to those measured during a previous study at BATS (1992–1994), potentially driven by long-term climate shifts at the site. On average, DMS cycling occurred on longer timescales than DMSPd (0.43 ± 0.35 v. 1.39 ± 0.76 day–1) with DMSPd consumption rates remaining elevated throughout the year despite significant seasonal variability in the bacterial DMSP degrader community. DMSPp was estimated to account for 4–5 % of mixed layer primary production and turned over at a significantly slower rate (~0.2 day–1). Photolysis drove DMS loss in the mixed layer during the summer, whereas biological consumption of DMS was the dominant loss process in the winter and at depth. These findings offer new insight into the underlying mechanisms driving DMS(P) cycling in the oligotrophic ocean, provide an extended dataset for future model evaluation and hypothesis testing and highlight the need for a reexamination of past modelling results and conclusions drawn from data collected with old methodologies.
  • Article
    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014
    (Elsevier, 2015-04-16) Mawji, Edward ; Schlitzer, Reiner ; Dodas, Elena Masferrer ; Abadie, Cyril ; Abouchami, Wafa ; Anderson, Robert F. ; Baars, Oliver ; Bakker, Karel ; Baskaran, Mark ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Bluhm, Katrin ; Bowie, Andrew R. ; Bown, Johann ; Boye, Marie ; Marie, Edward A. ; Branellec, Pierre ; Bruland, Kenneth W. ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Bucciarelli, Eva ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Butler, Edward ; Cai, Pinghe ; Cardinal, Damien ; Casciotti, Karen L. ; Chaves, Joaquin E. ; Cheng, Hai ; Chever, Fanny ; Church, Thomas M. ; Colman, Albert S. ; Conway, Tim M. ; Croot, Peter L. ; Cutter, Gregory A. ; Baar, Hein J. W. de ; de Souza, Gregory F. ; Dehairs, Frank ; Deng, Feifei ; Dieu, Huong Thi ; Dulaquais, Gabriel ; Echegoyen-Sanz, Yolanda ; Edwards, R. Lawrence ; Fahrbach, Eberhard ; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N. ; Fleisher, Martin Q. ; Frank, Martin ; Friedrich, Jana ; Fripiat, Francois ; Galer, Stephen J. G. ; Gamo, Toshitaka ; Garcia Solsona, Ester ; Gerringa, Loes J. A. ; Godoy, Jose Marcus ; Gonzalez, Santiago ; Grossteffan, Emilie ; Hatta, Mariko ; Hayes, Christopher T. ; Heller, Maija Iris ; Henderson, Gideon M. ; Huang, Kuo-Fang ; Jeandel, Catherine ; Jenkins, William J. ; John, Seth G. ; Kenna, Timothy C. ; Klunder, Maarten ; Kretschmer, Sven ; Kumamoto, Yuichiro ; Laan, Patrick ; Labatut, Marie ; Lacan, Francois ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Lannuzel, Delphine ; le Moigne, Frederique ; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J. ; Lohan, Maeve C. ; Lu, Yanbin ; Masqué, Pere ; McClain, Charles R. ; Measures, Christopher I. ; Middag, Rob ; Moffett, James W. ; Navidad, Alicia ; Nishioka, Jun ; Noble, Abigail E. ; Obata, Hajime ; Ohnemus, Daniel C. ; Owens, Stephanie A. ; Planchon, Frederic ; Pradoux, Catherine ; Puigcorbe, Viena ; Quay, Paul D. ; Radic, Amandine ; Rehkamper, Mark ; Remenyi, Tomas A. ; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A. ; Rintoul, Stephen R. ; Robinson, Laura F. ; Roeske, Tobias ; Rosenberg, Mark ; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M. ; Ryabenko, Evgenia ; Saito, Mak A. ; Roshan, Saeed ; Salt, Lesley ; Sarthou, Geraldine ; Schauer, Ursula ; Scott, Peter M. ; Sedwick, Peter N. ; Sha, Lijuan ; Shiller, Alan M. ; Sigman, Daniel M. ; Smethie, William M. ; Smith, Geoffrey J. ; Sohrin, Yoshiki ; Speich, Sabrina ; Stichel, Torben ; Stutsman, Johnny ; Swift, James H. ; Tagliabue, Alessandro ; Thomas, Alexander L. ; Tsunogai, Urumu ; Twining, Benjamin S. ; van Aken, Hendrik M. ; van Heuven, Steven ; van Ooijen, Jan ; van Weerlee, Evaline ; Venchiarutti, Celia ; Voelker, Antje H. L. ; Wake, Bronwyn ; Warner, Mark J. ; Woodward, E. Malcolm S. ; Wu, Jingfeng ; Wyatt, Neil ; Yoshikawa, Hisayuki ; Zheng, Xin-Yuan ; Xue, Zichen ; Zieringer, Moritz ; Zimmer, Louise A.
    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014 (IDP2014) is the first publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2013. It consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 200 trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) as well as classical hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing a strongly inter-linked on-line atlas including more than 300 section plots and 90 animated 3D scenes. The IDP2014 covers the Atlantic, Arctic, and Indian oceans, exhibiting highest data density in the Atlantic. The TEI data in the IDP2014 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at cross-over stations. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII spreadsheet, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. In addition to the actual data values the IDP2014 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked to the data in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2014 data providing section plots and a new kind of animated 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes allow for viewing of data from many cruises at the same time, thereby providing quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. In addition, the 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of observed tracer plumes, as well as for making inferences about controlling processes.
  • Article
    Formation and transport of corrosive water in the Pacific Arctic region
    (Elsevier, 2018-06-22) Cross, Jessica N. ; Mathis, Jeremy T. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Bates, Nicholas R.
    Ocean acidification (OA), driven by rising anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), is rapidly advancing in the Pacific Arctic Region (PAR), producing conditions newly corrosive to biologically important carbonate minerals like aragonite. Naturally short linkages across the PAR food web mean that species-specific acidification stress can be rapidly transmitted across multiple trophic levels, resulting in widespread impacts. Therefore, it is critical to understand the formation, transport, and persistence of acidified conditions in the PAR in order to better understand and project potential impacts to this delicately balanced ecosystem. Here, we synthesize data from process studies across the PAR to show the formation of corrosive conditions in colder, denser winter-modified Pacific waters over shallow shelves, resulting from the combination of seasonal terrestrial and marine organic matter respiration with anthropogenic CO2. When these waters are subsequently transported off the shelf, they acidify the Pacific halocline. We estimate that Barrow Canyon outflow delivers ~2.24 Tg C yr-1 to the Arctic Ocean through corrosive winter water transport. This synthesis also allows the combination of spatial data with temporal data to show the persistence of these conditions in halocline waters. For example, one study in this synthesis indicated that 0.5–1.7 Tg C yr-1 may be returned to the atmosphere via air-sea gas exchange of CO2 during upwelling events along the Beaufort Sea shelf that bring Pacific halocline waters to the ocean surface. The loss of CO2 during these events is more than sufficient to eliminate corrosive conditions in the upwelled Pacific halocline waters. However, corresponding moored and discrete data records indicate that potentially corrosive Pacific waters are present in the Beaufort shelfbreak jet during 80% of the year, indicating that the persistence of acidified waters in the Pacific halocline far outweighs any seasonal mitigation from upwelling. Across the datasets in this large-scale synthesis, we estimate that the persistent corrosivity of the Pacific halocline is a recent phenomenon that appeared between 1975 and 1985. Over that short time, these potentially corrosive waters originating over the continental shelves have been observed as far as the entrances to Amundsen Gulf and M’Clure Strait in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The formation and transport of corrosive waters on the Pacific Arctic shelves may have widespread impact on the Arctic biogeochemical system and food web reaching all the way to the North Atlantic.
  • Dataset
    Biogeochemistry Data collected from the R/V Oceanus cruises : OC399-03, OC408-01 and OC408-02 from the Northwestern Sargasso Sea roughly 35-28°N and 58-68°W, in water depths exceeding 4200 meters, from February 14, 2004 to March 14, 2005 (New Production project)
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact:, 2011-10-17) Lomas, Michael W. ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Knap, Anthony ; Lipschultz, Fredric ; Nelson, David M.
    This New Production During Winter Convective Mixing Events (New Production) Project biogeochemistry dataset includes the following data: nutrients, dissolved oxygen, organic matter and alkalinity. Detailed methods for all data collected as part of this study can be found in one of four publications arising from this study. The references include information on analytical machines and certified standards where applicable. The references are listed in the complete dataset description in the supplemental file Dataset_description.pdf.
  • Article
    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017
    (Elsevier, 2018-06-01) Schlitzer, Reiner ; Anderson, Robert F. ; Dodas, Elena Masferrer ; Lohan, Maeve C. ; Geibert, Walter ; Tagliabue, Alessandro ; Bowie, Andrew R. ; Jeandel, Catherine ; Maldonado, Maria T. ; Landing, William M. ; Cockwell, Donna ; Abadie, Cyril ; Abouchami, Wafa ; Achterberg, Eric P. ; Agather, Alison ; Aguliar-Islas, Ana ; van Aken, Hendrik M. ; Andersen, Morten ; Archer, Corey ; Auro, Maureen E. ; Baar, Hein J. W. de ; Baars, Oliver ; Baker, Alex R. ; Bakker, Karel ; Basak, Chandranath ; Baskaran, Mark ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Bauch, Dorothea ; van Beek, Pieter ; Behrens, Melanie K. ; Black, Erin E. ; Bluhm, Katrin ; Bopp, Laurent ; Bouman, Heather ; Bowman, Katlin ; Bown, Johann ; Boyd, Philip ; Boye, Marie ; Boyle, Edward A. ; Branellec, Pierre ; Bridgestock, Luke ; Brissebrat, Guillaume ; Browning, Thomas ; Bruland, Kenneth W. ; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Buck, Clifton S. ; Buck, Kristen N. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Bull, Abby ; Butler, Edward ; Cai, Pinghe ; Cámara Mor, Patricia ; Cardinal, Damien ; Carlson, Craig ; Carrasco, Gonzalo ; Casacuberta, Nuria ; Casciotti, Karen L. ; Castrillejo, Maxi ; Chamizo, Elena ; Chance, Rosie ; Charette, Matthew A. ; Chaves, Joaquin E. ; Cheng, Hai ; Chever, Fanny ; Christl, Marcus ; Church, Thomas M. ; Closset, Ivia ; Colman, Albert S. ; Conway, Tim M. ; Cossa, Daniel ; Croot, Peter L. ; Cullen, Jay T. ; Cutter, Gregory A. ; Daniels, Chris ; Dehairs, Frank ; Deng, Feifei ; Dieu, Huong Thi ; Duggan, Brian ; Dulaquais, Gabriel ; Dumousseaud, Cynthia ; Echegoyen-Sanz, Yolanda ; Edwards, R. Lawrence ; Ellwood, Michael J. ; Fahrbach, Eberhard ; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N. ; Flegal, A. Russell ; Fleisher, Martin Q. ; van de Flierdt, Tina ; Frank, Martin ; Friedrich, Jana ; Fripiat, Francois ; Fröllje, Henning ; Galer, Stephen J. G. ; Gamo, Toshitaka ; Ganeshram, Raja S. ; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi ; Garcia Solsona, Ester ; Gault-Ringold, Melanie ; George, Ejin ; Gerringa, Loes J. 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    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.