Goldsmith Roger A.

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Roger A.

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  • Technical Report
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution collection of Climatology and Air/Sea Interaction (CASI) data
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1979-08) Goldsmith, Roger A. ; Bunker, Andrew F.
    Scientists at Woods Hole routinely collect and analyze a considerable amount of data relating to the oceans of the world. Of the many different kinds of data, one particular subset concerns those events occurring at the sea surface. A large number of sea surface environmental observations have been collected at Woods Hole. These data, and the subsequent analyses generated from the Air/Sea Heat Flux and the Climatology study projects, have been collected and archived. This document describes the W.H.O.I./ Climatology and Air/Sea Interaction (WHOI/CASI) data collection and provides an initial index to its various components.
  • Technical Report
    Reconstructing Columbus’s first transatlantic track and landfall using climatological winds and currents
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1987-11) Goldsmith, Roger A. ; Richardson, Philip L.
    An article in the November 1986 National Geographic magazine examined the question of Columbus's first landfall in the Americas. The author, Luis Marden, was the first to quantitatively include the effects of the winds and currents in reconstructing the transoceanic portion of the voyage. There seemed, however, to be two major weaknesses in his analysis. First, the leeway effect on the ship by the wind was ignored for that portion of the voyage west of 40W, the whole second half of the voyage. Second, currents from pilot charts were used with the corresponding speed determined by the prevailing current. We sought to reanalyze the track using the leeway effect for the whole transatlantic track and using more appropriate average vector velocities of the current. Using climatological winds and currents we found the island of San Salvador (Watling Island) to be the most likely site of the first landfall of Columbus. This paper discusses the effects of wind, current, leeway, and magnetic variation on the determination of the landfall.
  • Technical Report
    Heave and roll response of free floating bodies of cylindrical shape
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1977-02) Berteaux, Henri O. ; Goldsmith, Roger A. ; Schott, W. E.
    The following report describes a computer solution to help predict the heave and roll response of free floating bodies of cylindrical shape when excited by random seas with known spectra. The basic concepts of harmonic analysis and statistics used in the method are first briefly reviewed. The report then presents a detailed derivation of the linear heave and roll response amplitude operators, that is the expressions of the vertical and angular displacements produced by a simple harmonic wave of one foot amplitude. The second part of the report reviews the computation procedure and the program's logic. It gives a detailed set of instructions for the program users, reviews the program's capabilities and limitations, and presents three case studies. The heave and roll response programs are written for use with XEROX SIGMA 7 computers. Program listings are given in the appendix.
  • Article
    Upwelling on the continental slope of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea : storms, ice, and oceanographic response
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-09-17) Pickart, Robert S. ; Moore, G. W. K. ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Fratantoni, Paula S. ; Goldsmith, Roger A. ; Yang, Jiayan
    The characteristics of Pacific-born storms that cause upwelling along the Beaufort Sea continental slope, the oceanographic response, and the modulation of the response due to sea ice are investigated. In fall 2002 a mooring array located near 152°W measured 11 significant upwelling events that brought warm and salty Atlantic water to shallow depths. When comparing the storms that caused these events to other Aleutian lows that did not induce upwelling, interesting trends emerged. Upwelling occurred most frequently when storms were located in a region near the eastern end of the Aleutian Island Arc and Alaskan Peninsula. Not only were these storms deep but they generally had northward-tending trajectories. While the steering flow aloft aided this northward progression, the occurrence of lee cyclogenesis due to the orography of Alaska seems to play a role as well in expanding the meridional influence of the storms. In late fall and early winter both the intensity and frequency of the upwelling diminished significantly at the array site. It is argued that the reduction in amplitude was due to the onset of heavy pack ice, while the decreased frequency was due to two different upper-level atmospheric blocking patterns inhibiting the far field influence of the storms.
  • Technical Report
    Numerical simulations of Columbus’ Atlantic crossings
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1992-02) Goldsmith, Roger A. ; Richardson, Philip L.
    The transatlantic route of Columbus was simulated incorporating historical winds, currents and hypothetical magnetic variation in order to estimate where the first landfall occured. Earlier simulations using an 1899 map by Van Bemmelen and assuming zero magnetic variation in the Bahamas to produce a landfall near San Salvador (Watlings Island). New theories postulating a Geometric league of 2.67 nautical miles and a westerly magnetic variation of approximately one point (11.25°) for the western terminus result in a landfall near the Turks and Caicos Islands. A westerly variation of this magnitude in the Bahamas has been inferred from early charts - the islands are shown several degrees too far north, which would have occurred if early navigators had been set imperceptibly southward by westerly variation - by studies of directions within the islands, and by studies of early navigation books. The simulation of subsequent voyages by Columbus lend further weight to a westerly variation of about one point in the region of Bahamas. Our work shows that a Grand Turk landfall cannot be ruled out based on the transatlantic portion of the voyage as has been suggested in the past. A more accurate simulation of the voyage and first landfall still requires a more accurate representation of the field of magnetic variation.
  • Technical Report
    Archived time-series of Atlantic Ocean meteorological variables and surface fluxes
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1979-01) Bunker, Andrew F. ; Goldsmith, Roger A.
    Time-series of monthly averages of latent, sensible and radiational heat fluxes and momentum fluxes at the surfaces of the North and South Atlantic Oceans were calculated from ship weather observations. These fluxes, together with values of meteorological variables have been averaged over entire Marsden squares (10X10° squares) for all months from January 1948 through December 1972. The method of computing fluxes from ship weather observations, listing of variables averaged, addition of sea-ice coverage of sub-polar regions, correction of albedos for the presence of sea ice, correction of infrared radiational exchange for humidity conditions of the upper atmosphere, and format of the data on magnetic tapes are described. Statistics of the fluxes and variables have been computed. Standard data tapes containing these time series and statistics are available.