Haine Thomas W. N.

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Thomas W. N.

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  • Preprint
    Water column structure and statistics of denmark strait overflow water cyclones
    ( 2013-10-30) von Appen, Wilken-Jon ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Brink, Kenneth H. ; Haine, Thomas W. N.
    Data from seven moorings deployed across the East Greenland shelfbreak and slope 280 km downstream of Denmark Strait are used to investigate the characteristics and dynamics of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) cyclones. On average, a cyclone passes the mooring array every other day near the 900 m isobath, dominating the variability of the boundary current system. There is considerable variation in both the frequency and location of the cyclones on the slope, but no apparent seasonality. Using the year-long data set from September 2007 to October 2008, we construct a composite DSOW cyclone that reveals the average scales of the features. The composite cyclone consists of a lens of dense overflow water on the bottom, up to 300 m thick, with cyclonic flow above the lens. The azimuthal flow is intensified in the middle and upper part of the water column and has the shape of a Gaussian eddy with a peak depth-mean speed of 0.22 m/s at a radius of 7.8 km. The lens is advected by the mean flow of 0.27 m/s and self propagates at 0.45 m/s, consistent with the topographic Rossby wave speed and the Nof speed. The total translation velocity along the East Greenland slope is 0.72 m/s. The self-propagation speed exceeds the cyclonic swirl speed, indicating that the azimuthal flow cannot kinematically trap fluid in the water column above the lens. This implies that the dense water anomaly and the cyclonic swirl velocity are dynamically linked, in line with previous theory. Satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data are investigated to study the surface expression of the cyclones. Disturbances to the SST field are found to propagate less quickly than the in-situ DSOW cyclones, raising the possibility that the propagation of the SST signatures is not directly associated with the cyclones.
  • Article
    The Greenland Flow Distortion Experiment
    (American Meteorological Society, 2008-09) Renfrew, Ian A. ; Petersen, Guðrún N. ; Outten, S. ; Sproson, D. ; Moore, G. W. K. ; Hay, C. ; Ohigashi, T. ; Zhang, S. ; Kristjansson, J. E. ; Fore, I. ; Olafsson, H. ; Gray, S. L. ; Irvine, E. A. ; Bovis, K. ; Brown, P. R. A. ; Swinbank, R. ; Haine, Thomas W. N. ; Lawrence, A. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Shapiro, M. ; Woolley, A.
    Greenland has a major influence on the atmospheric circulation of the North Atlantic–western European region, dictating the location and strength of mesoscale weather systems around the coastal seas of Greenland and directly influencing synoptic-scale weather systems both locally and downstream over Europe. High winds associated with the local weather systems can induce large air–sea fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum in a region that is critical to the overturning of the thermohaline circulation, and thus play a key role in controlling the coupled atmosphere–ocean climate system. The Greenland Flow Distortion Experiment (GFDex) is investigating the role of Greenland in defining the structure and predictability of both local and downstream weather systems through a program of aircraft-based observation and numerical modeling. The GFDex observational program is centered upon an aircraft-based field campaign in February and March 2007, at the dawn of the International Polar Year. Twelve missions were flown with the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements' BAe-146, based out of the Keflavik, Iceland. These included the first aircraft-based observations of a reverse tip jet event, the first aircraft-based observations of barrier winds off of southeast Greenland, two polar mesoscale cyclones, a dramatic case of lee cyclogenesis, and several targeted observation missions into areas where additional observations were predicted to improve forecasts. In this overview of GFDex the background, aims and objectives, and facilities and logistics are described. A summary of the campaign is provided, along with some of the highlights of the experiment.
  • Article
    Frontogenesis and variability in Denmark Strait and its influence on overflow water
    (American Meteorological Society, 2019-07-01) Spall, Michael A. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Lin, Peigen ; von Appen, Wilken-Jon ; Mastropole, Dana M. ; Valdimarsson, Héðinn ; Haine, Thomas W. N. ; Almansi, Mattia
    A high-resolution numerical model, together with in situ and satellite observations, is used to explore the nature and dynamics of the dominant high-frequency (from one day to one week) variability in Denmark Strait. Mooring measurements in the center of the strait reveal that warm water “flooding events” occur, whereby the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC) propagates offshore and advects subtropical-origin water northward through the deepest part of the sill. Two other types of mesoscale processes in Denmark Strait have been described previously in the literature, known as “boluses” and “pulses,” associated with a raising and lowering of the overflow water interface. Our measurements reveal that flooding events occur in conjunction with especially pronounced pulses. The model indicates that the NIIC hydrographic front is maintained by a balance between frontogenesis by the large-scale flow and frontolysis by baroclinic instability. Specifically, the temperature and salinity tendency equations demonstrate that the eddies act to relax the front, while the mean flow acts to sharpen it. Furthermore, the model reveals that the two dense water processes—boluses and pulses (and hence flooding events)—are dynamically related to each other and tied to the meandering of the hydrographic front in the strait. Our study thus provides a general framework for interpreting the short-time-scale variability of Denmark Strait Overflow Water entering the Irminger Sea.
  • Article
    High-frequency variability in the circulation and hydrography of the Denmark Strait Overflow from a high-resolution numerical model
    (American Meteorological Society, 2017-12-13) Almansi, Mattia ; Haine, Thomas W. N. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Magaldi, Marcello G. ; Gelderloos, Renske ; Mastropole, Dana M.
    Initial results are presented from a yearlong, high-resolution (~2 km) numerical simulation covering the east Greenland shelf and the Iceland and Irminger Seas. The model hydrography and circulation in the vicinity of Denmark Strait show good agreement with available observational datasets. This study focuses on the variability of the Denmark Strait overflow (DSO) by detecting and characterizing boluses and pulses, which are the two dominant mesoscale features in the strait. The authors estimate that the yearly mean southward volume flux of the DSO is about 30% greater in the presence of boluses and pulses. On average, boluses (pulses) are 57.1 (27.5) h long, occur every 3.2 (5.5) days, and are more frequent during the summer (winter). Boluses (pulses) increase (decrease) the overflow cross-sectional area, and temperatures around the overflow interface are colder (warmer) by about 2.6°C (1.8°C). The lateral extent of the boluses is much greater than that of the pulses. In both cases the along-strait equatorward flow of dense water is enhanced but more so for pulses. The sea surface height (SSH) rises by 4–10 cm during boluses and by up to 5 cm during pulses. The SSH anomaly contours form a bowl (dome) during boluses (pulses), and the two features cross the strait with a slightly different orientation. The cross streamflow changes direction; boluses (pulses) are associated with veering (backing) of the horizontal current. The model indicates that boluses and pulses play a major role in controlling the variability of the DSO transport into the Irminger Sea.
  • Article
    Lagrangian perspective on the origins of Denmark Strait Overflow
    (American Meteorological Society, 2020-08-01) Saberi, Atousa ; Haine, Thomas W. N. ; Gelderloos, Renske ; de Jong, Marieke Femke ; Furey, Heather H. ; Bower, Amy S.
    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) is an important contributor to the lower limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Determining DSO formation and its pathways is not only important for local oceanography but also critical to estimating the state and variability of the AMOC. Despite prior attempts to understand the DSO sources, its upstream pathways and circulation remain uncertain due to short-term (3–5 days) variability. This makes it challenging to study the DSO from observations. Given this complexity, this study maps the upstream pathways and along-pathway changes in its water properties, using Lagrangian backtracking of the DSO sources in a realistic numerical ocean simulation. The Lagrangian pathways confirm that several branches contribute to the DSO from the north such as the East Greenland Current (EGC), the separated EGC (sEGC), and the North Icelandic Jet (NIJ). Moreover, the model results reveal additional pathways from south of Iceland, which supplied over 16% of the DSO annually and over 25% of the DSO during winter of 2008, when the NAO index was positive. The southern contribution is about 34% by the end of March. The southern pathways mark a more direct route from the near-surface subpolar North Atlantic to the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), and needs to be explored further, with in situ observations.
  • Preprint
    The East Greenland Spill Jet as an important component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation
    ( 2014-06-03) von Appen, Wilken-Jon ; Koszalka, Inga M. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Haine, Thomas W. N. ; Mastropole, Dana M. ; Magaldi, Marcello G. ; Valdimarsson, Héðinn ; Girton, James B. ; Jochumsen, Kerstin ; Krahmann, Gerd
    The recently discovered East Greenland Spill Jet is a bottom-intensified current on the upper continental slope south of Denmark Strait, transporting intermediate density water equatorward. Until now the Spill Jet has only been observed with limited summertime measurements from ships. Here we present the first year-round mooring observations demonstrating that the current is a ubiquitous feature with a volume transport similar to the well-known plume of Denmark Strait overflow water farther downslope. Using reverse particle tracking in a high-resolution numerical model, we investigate the upstream sources feeding the Spill Jet. Three main pathways are identified: particles flowing directly into the Spill Jet from the Denmark Strait sill; particles progressing southward on the East Greenland shelf that subsequently spill over the shelfbreak into the current; and ambient water from the Irminger Sea that gets entrained into the flow. The two Spill Jet pathways emanating from Denmark Strait are newly resolved, and long-term hydrographic data from the strait verifies that dense water is present far onto the Greenland shelf. Additional measurements near the southern tip of Greenland suggest that the Spill Jet ultimately merges with the deep portion of the shelfbreak current, originally thought to be a lateral circulation associated with the sub-polar gyre. Our study thus reveals a previously unrecognized significant component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation that needs to be considered to understand fully the ocean’s role in climate.
  • Article
    On the nature and variability of the east Greenland Spill Jet : a case study in Summer 2003
    (American Meteorological Society, 2011-12-01) Magaldi, Marcello G. ; Haine, Thomas W. N. ; Pickart, Robert S.
    Results from a high-resolution (~2 km) numerical simulation of the Irminger Basin during summer 2003 are presented. The focus is on the East Greenland Spill Jet, a recently discovered component of the circulation in the basin. The simulation compares well with observations of surface fields, the Denmark Strait overflow (DSO), and the hydrographic structure of typical sections in the basin. The model reveals new aspects of the circulation on scales of O(0.1–10) days and O(1–100) km. The model Spill Jet results from the cascade of dense waters over the East Greenland shelf. Spilling can occur in various locations southwest of the strait, and it is present throughout the simulation but exhibits large variations on periods of O(0.1–10) days. The Spill Jet sometimes cannot be distinguished in the velocity field from surface eddies or from the DSO. The vorticity structure of the jet confirms its unstable nature with peak relative and tilting vorticity terms reaching twice the planetary vorticity term. The average model Spill Jet transport is 4.9 ±1.7 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) equatorward, about 2½ times larger than has been previously reported from a single ship transect in August 2001. Kinematic analysis of the model results suggests two different types of spilling events. In the first case (type I), a local perturbation results in dense waters descending over the shelf break into the Irminger Basin. In the second case (type II), surface cyclones associated with DSO deep domes initiate the spilling process. During summer 2003, more than half of the largest Spill Jet transport values are of type II.
  • Article
    Evolution of Denmark Strait overflow cyclones and their relationship to overflow surges
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-02-06) Almansi, Mattia ; Haine, Thomas W. N. ; Gelderloos, Renske ; Pickart, Robert S.
    Mesoscale features present at the Denmark Strait sill regularly enhance the volume transport of the Denmark Strait overflow (DSO). They are important for the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and ultimately, for the global climate system. Using a realistic numerical model, we find new evidence of the causal relationship between overflow surges (i.e., mesoscale features associated with high‐transport events) and DSO cyclones observed downstream. Most of the cyclones form at the Denmark Strait sill during overflow surges and, because of potential vorticity conservation and stretching of the water column, grow as they move equatorward. A fraction of the cyclones form downstream of the sill, when anticyclonic vortices formed during high‐transport events start collapsing. Regardless of their formation mechanism, DSO cyclones weaken starting roughly 150 km downstream of the sill, and potential vorticity is only materially conserved during the growth phase.
  • Article
    Freshwater and its role in the Arctic Marine System : sources, disposition, storage, export, and physical and biogeochemical consequences in the Arctic and global oceans
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-03-30) Carmack, Edward C. ; Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo ; Haine, Thomas W. N. ; Bacon, Sheldon ; Bluhm, Bodil A. ; Lique, Camille ; Melling, Humfrey ; Polyakov, Igor V. ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Williams, William J.
    The Arctic Ocean is a fundamental node in the global hydrological cycle and the ocean's thermohaline circulation. We here assess the system's key functions and processes: (1) the delivery of fresh and low-salinity waters to the Arctic Ocean by river inflow, net precipitation, distillation during the freeze/thaw cycle, and Pacific Ocean inflows; (2) the disposition (e.g., sources, pathways, and storage) of freshwater components within the Arctic Ocean; and (3) the release and export of freshwater components into the bordering convective domains of the North Atlantic. We then examine physical, chemical, or biological processes which are influenced or constrained by the local quantities and geochemical qualities of freshwater; these include stratification and vertical mixing, ocean heat flux, nutrient supply, primary production, ocean acidification, and biogeochemical cycling. Internal to the Arctic the joint effects of sea ice decline and hydrological cycle intensification have strengthened coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere (e.g., wind and ice drift stresses, solar radiation, and heat and moisture exchange), the bordering drainage basins (e.g., river discharge, sediment transport, and erosion), and terrestrial ecosystems (e.g., Arctic greening, dissolved and particulate carbon loading, and altered phenology of biotic components). External to the Arctic freshwater export acts as both a constraint to and a necessary ingredient for deep convection in the bordering subarctic gyres and thus affects the global thermohaline circulation. Geochemical fingerprints attained within the Arctic Ocean are likewise exported into the neighboring subarctic systems and beyond. Finally, we discuss observed and modeled functions and changes in this system on seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales and discuss mechanisms that link the marine system to atmospheric, terrestrial, and cryospheric systems.
  • Article
    Using hydraulic theory to monitor dense overflows in a parabolic channel
    (American Meteorological Society, 2023-02-27) Saberi, Atousa ; Pratt, Lawrence J. ; Haine, Thomas W. N. ; Helfrich, Karl R.
    Deep ocean passages are advantageous sites for long-term monitoring of deep transport and other physical properties relevant to climate. Rotating hydraulic theory provides potential for simplifying monitoring strategy by reducing the number of quantities that need to be measured. However, the applicability of these theories has been limited by idealizations such as restriction to zero or uniform potential vorticity (pv) and to channels with rectangular cross sections. Here the relationship between the flow characteristics in a canonical sea strait and its upstream condition is studied using uniform pv rotating hydraulic theory and a reduced-gravity shallow-water numerical model that allows for variation in pv. The paper is focused mainly on the sensitivity of the hydraulic solution to the strait geometry. We study the dynamics of channels with continuously varying (parabolic) cross sections to account for the rounded nature of sea-strait topographies and potentially improve monitoring strategies for realistic channel geometries. The results show that far enough from the channel entrance, the hydraulically controlled flow in the strait is insensitive to the basin circulation regardless of parabolic curvature. The controlled transport relation is derived for the case of uniform pv theory. Comparing the model to theory, we find that the measurement of the wetted edges of the interface height at the critical section can be used to estimate the volume flux. Based on this finding, we suggest three monitoring strategies for transport estimation and compare the estimates with the observed values at the Faroe Bank Channel. The results showed that the estimated transports are within the range of observed values. Significance Statement The paper investigates the relationship between the flow characteristics in an idealized sea strait and its upstream condition using rotating hydraulic theory and numerical modeling. We study the dynamics of channels with continuously varying (parabolic) cross sections to account for the rounded nature of sea-strait topographies and potentially improve monitoring strategies for realistic channel geometries. We suggest three monitoring strategies for transport estimation and apply the methods to the Faroe Bank Channel. Our estimates of dense water transport are within the range of observed values. This is significant, because the suggested monitoring strategies only require 1–3 measurements to estimate the transport at a given passage and can be used to guide observing systems.
  • Article
    Introduction to the special issue on the new Artic Ocean
    (Oceanography Society, 2022-12-08) Weingartner, Thomas ; Ashjian, Carin ; Brigham, Lawson ; Haine, Thomas ; Mack, Liza ; Perovich, Don ; Rabe, Benjamin
    One hundred and thirty years ago, Fridtjof Nansen, the Norwegian polar explorer and scientist, set off on a bold three-year journey to investigate the unknown Arctic Ocean. The expedition relied on a critical technological development: a small, strong, and maneuverable vessel, powered by sail and an engine, with an endurance of five years for twelve men. His intellectual curiosity and careful observations led to an early glimpse of the Arctic Ocean’s circulation and its unique ecosystem. Some of Nansen’s findings on sea ice and the penetration of Atlantic Water into the Arctic Ocean established a benchmark against which we have measured profound changes over the past few decades. In contrast, little was known about the Arctic Ocean’s ecosystem processes prior to the onset of anthropogenic climate change. Nansen’s successes, which paved the way for subsequent research, were gained in part from Indigenous Greenlanders who taught him how to survive in this harsh environment.