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ArticleGenomic and metabolic diversity of Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota in the mesopelagic of two subtropical gyres(Public Library of Science, 2014-04-17) Swan, Brandon K. ; Chaffin, Mark D. ; Martinez-Garcia, Manuel ; Morrison, Hilary G. ; Field, Erin K. ; Poulton, Nicole J. ; Masland, E. Dashiell P. ; Harris, Christopher C. ; Sczyrba, Alexander ; Chain, Patrick S. G. ; Koren, Sergey ; Woyke, Tanja ; Stepanauskas, RamunasMarine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaeota are one of the most abundant and cosmopolitan chemoautotrophs within the global dark ocean. To date, no representatives of this archaeal group retrieved from the dark ocean have been successfully cultured. We used single cell genomics to investigate the genomic and metabolic diversity of thaumarchaea within the mesopelagic of the subtropical North Pacific and South Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic and metagenomic recruitment analysis revealed that MGI single amplified genomes (SAGs) are genetically and biogeographically distinct from existing thaumarchaea cultures obtained from surface waters. Confirming prior studies, we found genes encoding proteins for aerobic ammonia oxidation and the hydrolysis of urea, which may be used for energy production, as well as genes involved in 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate and oxidative tricarboxylic acid pathways. A large proportion of protein sequences identified in MGI SAGs were absent in the marine cultures Cenarchaeum symbiosum and Nitrosopumilus maritimus, thus expanding the predicted protein space for this archaeal group. Identifiable genes located on genomic islands with low metagenome recruitment capacity were enriched in cellular defense functions, likely in response to viral infections or grazing. We show that MGI Thaumarchaeota in the dark ocean may have more flexibility in potential energy sources and adaptations to biotic interactions than the existing, surface-ocean cultures.