Katz Laure S.
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PreprintHigh apex predator biomass on remote Pacific islands( 2006-09-06) Stevenson, Charlotte ; Katz, Laure S. ; Micheli, Fiorenza ; Block, Barbara A. ; Heiman, Kimberly W. ; Perle, Chris ; Weng, Kevin ; Dunbar, Robert B. ; Witting, Jan H.On coral reefs in Palmyra—a central Pacific atoll with limited fishing pressure—total fish biomass is 428 and 299% greater than on reefs in nearby Christmas and Fanning Islands. Large apex predators –groupers, sharks, snappers, and jacks larger than 50 cm in length- account for 56% of total fish biomass in Palmyra on average, but only 7% and 3% on Christmas and Fanning. These biomass proportions are remarkably similar to those previously reported for the remote and uninhabited Northwest Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and densely populated Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), although Palmyra’s reefs are dominated in biomass by sharks (44% of the total), whereas the NWHI by jacks (39%). Herbivorous fish biomass was also greater on Palmyra than on Christmas and Fanning (343% and 207%, respectively). These results and previous findings indicate that remote, uninhabited islands support high levels of consumers, and highlight the importance of healthy coral reef ecosystems as reference points for assessment of human impacts and establishment of restoration goals.
Working PaperEconomic sustainability of marine aquaculture : a report to the Marine Aquaculture Task Force(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2007-02) Hoagland, Porter ; Kite-Powell, Hauke L. ; Jin, Di ; Schumacher, Mary E. ; Katz, Laure S. ; Klinger, DaneIn the future, marine aquaculture production is likely to expand significantly in the United States and abroad. This paper deals with the present and future economic sustainability of aquaculture in the United States in light of this expectation. Economic sustainability requires the allocation of scarce resources to generate economic profits for investments in physical capital, knowledge, and technology that may endow future generations with the capacity to be at least as well off as the current generation. Discussions about sustainability (or sustainable development) focus mainly on fairness in the distribution of economic welfare across generations. Due to this focus on intergenerational equity, international political discussions of sustainable development often are not directly concerned with economic efficiency. Economic efficiency is a necessary condition for achieving sustainable development, however, because it does not make sense to waste resources without cause. And efficiency is likely to increase the net benefits that can be shared both within and across generations.