Williams Albert J.

No Thumbnail Available
Last Name
First Name
Albert J.

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 19 of 19
  • Technical Report
    The role of double diffusion in a Gulf Stream frontal intrusion
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1981-05) Williams, Albert J.
    Double diffusive convection is possible where large vertical gradients in temperature and salinity tend to compensate in density. Frontal intrusions have these large gradients and can provide the possibility for a salt finger interface at one boundary and a diffusive interface at the other. But large vertical gradients of velocity are present at the boundaries of intrusions, which cause mechanical stirring and turbulent mixing as well. In the exceptionally active intrusions at the Gulf Stream Front near 38°N 69°W, a convective process resulting from incomplete mechanical mixing was observed photographically on both intrusive boundaries.
  • Technical Report
    The HEBBLE II report : proceedings of the second annual workshop on the High Energy Benthic Boundary Layer Experiment held at the Keystone Center for Continuing Education, March 19-24, 1979
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1979-08) Williams, Albert J. ; Hollister, Charles D. ; Chandler, Richard S.
    In 1978, the first Keystone Conference addressed the scientific problems of sediment transport in a high energy flow such as the Western Boundary Undercurrent. Sedimentologists, physical oceanographers, geologists, optical oceanographers, biologists, and ocean engineers planned a program called the High Energy Benthic Boundary Layer Experiment (HEBBLE) to measure ocean floor bed-forms, sediment properties, turbulent flow structure, suspended sediment concentrations and fluxes, mixed layer thickness, outer scale velocity and horizontal gradients of density in a carefully surveyed site yet to be selected. While measurements were suggested, specific instruments were not identified to implement them. It was encouraging that the scientists participating in the first HEBBLE Conference wanted to continue to plan a multi-disciplinary experiment. Because of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's experience in management of planetary science experiments, autonomous instrumentation, image processing and data handling, we invited them to develop our experimental plan. Conferences were held in September at Woods Hole and November, 1978 at JPL to develop the instrumental ensemble. JPL involvement was concentrated on the extended deployment part of HEBBLE: the 6-month experiment. The March 20-23, 1979 conference brought JPL engineers and managers, HEBBLE scientists and PI's, ONR and NASA program managers together in Keystone, Colorado for presentation and discussion of the JPL program plan. This report summarizes the conference and includes reports by subcommittees of the conference on measurements and data sampling.
  • Technical Report
    An acoustic sensor of velocity for benthic boundary layer studies
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1978-04) Williams, Albert J. ; Tochko, John Steven
    The techniques of flow measurement which have been successful in laboratory studies of boundary layer turbulence are difficult to use in the ocean; and the current meters penerally used in the ocean are not suited to measuring bottom boundary layer flow . A suitable sensor for bottom turbulence measurements should measure vector components, respond linearly to these components, maintain an accurate zero point, disturb the flow negligibly or in a well predicted way, and sense a small enough volume to represent the important scales of the flow. We have constructed an acoustic travel time sensor in a configuration that will allow vector components of the flow to be measured with sufficient accuracy to compute Reynolds stress at a point 50 cm above the bottom. This sensor responds linearly to horizontal and vertical flows in flume tests. When the flow is neither horizontal nor vertical, the wake from one acoustic transducer may interfere with the measurement along one sensing path but there is sufficient redundancy in the determination to reject this path and still resolve the vector velocity. An instrument· using four of these sensors is being designed to measure Reynolds stress in the lower six meters of the ocean.
  • Technical Report
    Data report : stress measurements in the bottom boundary layer with BASS tripods STRESS II 1990-91
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1993-11) Gross, Thomas F. ; Amft, Julie ; Williams, Albert J.
    Two Benthic Acoustic Strss Sensor (BASS) equipped tripods were deployed in the Sediment TRansport Events on Shelves and Slopes (STRESS) experiment on the Californa Shelf acquiring data from January to March 1991. They measured velocity profiles in the bottom boundary layer over the lowest 5 meters. Trasmissometers, thermistors, and a pressure sensor on each tripod provided suspended sediment concentration, stratification, and wave spectral information, as well.
  • Technical Report
    The 1995 Georges Bank Stratification Study and moored array measurements
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2001-08) Alessi, Carol A. ; Beardsley, Robert C. ; Caruso, Michael J. ; Churchill, James H. ; Irish, James D. ; Lentz, Steven J. ; Limeburner, Richard ; Werner, R. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Williams, Albert J. ; Williams, William J. ; Manning, James P. ; Smith, P.
    The 1995 Geoges Bank Stratification Study (GBSS) was the first intensive process study conducted as part of the U.S. GLOBEC Northwest Atlantic/Georges Bank field program. The GBSS was designed to investigate the physical processes which control the seasonal development of stratification along the southern flank of Georges Bank during spring and summer. Past work suggested that during this period, larval cod and haddock tended to aggregate to the thermocline on the southern flank where higher concentrations of their copepod prey were found. A moored array was deployed as part of GBSS to observe the onset and evolution of sesonal stratification over the southern flank with sufficient vertical and horizontal resolution that key physical processes could be identified and quantified. Moored current, temperature, and conductivity (salinity) measurements were made at three sites along the southern flank, one on the crest, and one on the northeast peak of the bank. Moored surface meteorological measurements were also made at one southern flank site to determine the surface wind stress and heat and moisture fluxes. The oceanographic and meteorological data collected with the GBSS array during January-August 1995 are presented in this report. Meteorological data collected on National Data Buoy Center environmental buoys 44011 (Georges Bank), 44008 (Nantucket Shoals), and 44005 (Gulf of Maine) are included in this report for completeness and comparison with the GBSS southern flank meteorological measurements.
  • Technical Report
    Report on Sediment Transport Events on Shelf and Slope (STRESS) field season 1 : Winter 1988-1989 Benthic Acoustic Stress Sensor (BASS)
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1989-12) Montgomery, Ellyn T. ; Dunn, Christopher V. R. ; Williams, Albert J.
    Data on the effects of winter conditions on the transport of sediment on the continental shelf off Northern California were collected during the flrst year of the Sediment TRansport Events on Shelf and Slope (STRESS) Experiment. This experiment was done in conjunction with (Shelf Mixed Layer Experiment) SMILE and (Biological Effects on Coastal Ocean Sediment Transport) BECOST to provide a complete suite of measurements of nearshore dynamics, sediment transport, and biological interactions. This report includes a general description of the work accomplished during the frrst STRESS fleld season, carried out in the winter of 1988-1989 off the Northern California coast Three cruises were completed during the STRESS experiment, one each for deployment, turnaround, and r~overy of the instruments. This created two back-to-back sections of data, one from December 4, 1988 to January 23, 1989, and the other from January 29 to March 17, 1989. This report also documents in detail the use of the Benthic Acoustic Stress Sensor (BASS), and the associated acoustic data telemetry link in STRESS. BASS has been used in different configurations previously, but the acoustic telemetry system is new.
  • Article
    Bottom stress generation and sediment transport over the shelf and slope off of Lake Superior's Keweenaw peninsula
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-10-30) Churchill, James H. ; Williams, Albert J. ; Ralph, Elise A.
    Data from near-bottom instruments reveal that the mechanisms responsible for generating bottom stresses and resuspending sediment over the shelf and slope off of Lake Superior's Keweenaw peninsula exhibit distinct seasonal variations. Notably, near-bottom flows over the slope are persistently weak (<10 cm s−1) during summer but frequently attain high speeds, in excess of 20 cm s−1, in autumn and winter. During the intense storms of autumn and winter the generation of bottom stress is enhanced by the action of near-bottom orbital velocities due to surface waves. Even at 90-m depth, orbital velocities can increase bottom stress by a factor of up to 20% during storms. Where the seasonal thermocline intersects the lake floor, bottom stress is also considerably enhanced, often by more than a factor of 2, by high-frequency motions in the internal wave band. Over the Keweenaw slope, sediment resuspension is largely confined to autumn and winter episodes of high bottom stress. Our analysis indicates that this resuspended material tends to be carried offshore, a phenomenon that is partly due to the coincidence of the direction of the buoyancy-driven component of the Keweenaw Current with downwelling favorable alongshore winds. As a result of this coincidence, currents and bottom stresses tend to be greater during periods of downwelling, as opposed to upwelling, circulation. A potential challenge to modeling storm-driven resuspension in the study region is indicated by observations that the minimum stress required for resuspension may vary significantly with time over the autumn and winter.
  • Technical Report
    Fluid mechanical measurements within the boundary layer over the northern California Continental Shelf during STRESS
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1993-09) Fredericks, Janet J. ; Trowbridge, John H. ; Williams, Albert J. ; Lentz, Steven J. ; Butman, Bradford ; Gross, Thomas F.
    In studying the processes controlling particle distrbution of fine sediments over the continental shelf, the height, structure and dynamics of the bottom boundary layer must be better understood. The Sediment Transport Events on Shelves and Slopes (STRESS) program provides a comprehensive set of data over the bottom half of the water column at the 90m and the 130m isobaths along the northern California continental shelf during the winters of 1988-89 and 1990-91. This report presents the STRESS salinity, temperature, velocity, wave characteristics and attenuation data. The report describes the processing, provides plots and tables of the data and corresponding statistics for evaluation of the data, and documents the data fies. The combined set of moored and tripod mounted instrument measurements provides integrated, hourly-averaged profiles of the lower half of the water column at the four sites which can be used for analysis and modeling purposes.
  • Technical Report
    Vorticity measurements within the bottom boundary layer in the Strait of Juan De Fuca
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1998-07) Fredericks, Janet J. ; Trowbridge, John H. ; Williams, Albert J.
    Electromagnetic fluctuations and turbulent vorticity fluctuations were measured over a nine month period in the strong tidal flows of the Strait of Juan De Fuca off the coast of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington. A collaborative experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that electromagnetic fluctuations at the sea floor are forced by turbulent vorticity fluctuations in the bottom boundary layer. This report describes the measurement of turbulent vorticity fluctuations and the associated analysis which focuses on testing existing theoretical predictions for the inertial subrange and on characterizing spectra at frequencies below the inertial subrange.
  • Article
    Direct estimation of the Reynolds stress vertical structure in the nearshore
    (American Meteorological Society, 2007-01) Feddersen, Falk ; Williams, Albert J.
    Measurements of the vertical Reynolds stress components in the wave-dominated nearshore are required to diagnose momentum and turbulence dynamics. Removing wave bias from Reynolds stress estimates is critical to a successful diagnosis. Here two existing Reynolds stress estimation methods (those of Trowbridge, and Shaw and Trowbridge) for wave-dominated environments and an extended method (FW) that is a combination of the two are tested with a vertical array of three current meters deployed in 3.2-m water depth off an ocean beach. During the 175-h-long experiment the instruments were seaward of the surfzone and the alongshore current was wind driven. Intercomparison of Reynolds stress methods reveals that the Trowbridge method is wave bias dominated. Tests of the integrated cospectra are used to reject bad Reynolds stress estimates, and the Shaw and Trowbridge estimates are rejected more often than FW estimates. With the FW method, wave bias remains apparent in the cross-shore component of the Reynolds stress. However, the alongshore component of Reynolds stress measured at the three current meters are related to each other with a vertically uniform first EOF containing 73% of the variance, indicating the presence of a constant stress layer. This is the first time the vertical structure of Reynolds stress has been measured in a wave-dominated environment. The Reynolds stress is, albeit weakly, related to the wind stress and a parameterized bottom stress. Using derived wave bias and bottom stress parameterizations, the effect of wave bias on Reynolds stress estimates is shown to be weaker for more typical surfzone conditions (with both stronger waves and currents than those observed here).
  • Technical Report
    Variability of sea-floor roughness within the Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (CODE) region
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1983-06) Cacchione, David A. ; Drake, David E. ; Grant, William D. ; Williams, Albert J. ; Tate, George B.
    This report briefly summarizes the geological and biological data taken oft northern California before and during the Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (CODE) (Allen et al, 1982) by the principal investigators of the bottom stress/bottom boundary layer component of CODE (D. Cacchione, D. Drake, USGS; and W. Grant, A. Williams, WHOI) and other cooperating investigators of the U.S. Geological Survey.
  • Technical Report
    High frequency bottom stress variability and its prediction in the CODE region
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1983-06) Grant, William D. ; Williams, Albert J. ; Glenn, Scott M. ; Cacchione, David A.
    High quality bottom boundary layer measurements obtained in the CODE region off Northern California are described. Bottom tripod velocity measurements and supporting data obtained during typical spring and early summer conditions and during a winter storm are analyzed to obtain both velocity profiles and mean bottom stress and bottom roughness estimates. The spring/summer measurements were taken in June, 1981 during CODE-1 at C3 (90 m) by Grant and Williams, WHOI; the winter storm data was taken in November 1980 prior to CODE-1 at the R2 (80 m) site by Cacchione and Drake, USGS. The mean near-bottom (< 2m) velocity profiles are logarithmic (R2 > 0.993) much of the time for everyday flows; deviations are primarily due to kinematical effects induced by unsteadiness from internal waves. Stress profiles show the logarithmic layer corresponds to a constant stress layer as expected for the inertial region of a boundary layer. Stress estimates made from dissipation and profile techniques agree at the 95 percent confidence level. Typical z0 values estimated from measurements greater than 30 cm above the bottom have magnitudes of approximately 1 cm; an order of magnitude larger than the physical bottom roughness. Corresponding u* values have typical magnitudes of 0.5-1.0 cm/sec; more than twice as large as expected from a usual drag law prediction (corresponding to over a factor of four in mean stress). These values are demonstrated to be consistent with those expected for combined wave and current flows predicted theoretically by Grant and Madsen (1979) and Smith (1977). The u* values estimated from the CODE-1 data and predicted by the Grant and Madsen (1979) model typically agree within 10-15 percent. Similar results are demonstrated for the winter storm conditions during which large sediment transport occurs. (Typical z0 values are 4-6 cm; typical u* values are 3-6 cm/sec). The waves influencing the mid-shelf bottom stress estimates are 14-20 second swell associated with Southern and Western Pacific storms. These waves are present over most of the year. The results clearly demonstrate that waves must be taken into account in predicting bottom stress over the Northern California Shelf.
  • Technical Report
    A preliminary description of the CODE-1 field program
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1982-12) Allen, John S. ; Beardsley, Robert C. ; Brown, Wayne S. ; Cacchione, David A. ; Davis, Russ E. ; Drake, David E. ; Friehe, Carl A. ; Grant, William D. ; Huyer, Adriana ; Irish, James D. ; Janopaul, M. M. ; Williams, Albert J. ; Winant, Clinton D.
    A Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (CODE) has been undertaken to identify and study the important dynamical processes which govern the wind-driven motion of coastal water over the continental shelf. The initial effort in this four-year research program is to obtain high-quality data sets of all the relevant physical variables needed to construct accurate kinematic and dynamic descriptions of the response of shelf water to strong wind forcing in the 2 to 10-day band. A series of two small-scale, densely-instrumented field experiments of four-month duration (CODE-1 and CODE-2) is designed to explore and to determine the kinematics and momentum and heat balances of the local wind-driven flow over a region of the northern California shelf which is characterized by both relatively simple bottom topography and large wind stress events in both winter and summer. A more lightly-instrumented, long-term, large-scale component has been designed to help separate the local wind-driven response in the region of the small-scale experiments from motions generated either offshore by the California Current system or in some distant region along the coast, and also to help determine the seasonal cycles of the atmospheric forcing, water structure, and coastal currents over the northern California shelf. This report presents an overview of the CODE program and a preliminary description of the observational programs conducted during CODE-1. The various logical components of CODE are identified and described, and their relationship to the entire effort is discussed. The report itself represents a minor revision of the original cover proposal submitted to NSF in late 1979 by the principal investigators and is not a comprehensive guide nor does it contain any descriptions of the initial results from CODE-1. Scientific and engineering results will be presented elsewhere in individual technical and scientific reports. CODE has been jointly conceived by the following principal investigators (who collectively make up the CODE group): J. Allen , R. Beardsley, W. Brown, 0. Cacchione, R. Davis, D. Drake , C. Friehe, W. Grant, A. Huyer, J. Irish, M. Janopaul, A. Williams and C. Winant.
  • Technical Report
    Stress, salt flux, and dynamics of a partially mixed estuary
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1998-08) Fredericks, Janet J. ; Trowbridge, John H. ; Geyer, W. Rockwell ; Williams, Albert J. ; Bowen, Melissa M. ; Woodruff, Jonathan D.
    A field study was performed in the lower Hudson River, a partially mixed estuary with a relatively simple geometry (Figure 1), between August and October of 1995. The objectives of the study were (1) to quantify and characterize the turbulent transport of momentum and salt, and (2) to relate the turbulent transport processes to the local and estuary-wide dynamics. The measurement program consisted of fixed and shipboard components. At a central site, a moored array of temperature-conductivity sensors and optical backscatter sensors (OBS), a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and a bottom-mounted array of acoustic travel-time current sensors (BASS), temperature-conductivity sensors, and OBS sensors resolved the vertical structure of velocity, salinity and turbidity and the near-bottom turbulence structure. Moored and bottom-mounted velocity, temperature, conductivity and pressure sensors at five secondary sites quantified the spatial and temporal variabilty of velocity, salinity and bottom pressure. Shipboard measurements with an ADCP and a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiler, accompanied by an OBS sensor, resolved the spatial structure and tidal variability of velocity, salinity and turbidity along several cross-channel and along-channel transects. This report describes the measurements in detail. Section II describes the instrumentation, Section III describes the deployment and sampling schemes, Section IV describes the data processing, and Section V is a summary of plots of selected data. Section VI documents the data files and Sections VII and VII give acknowledgments and references.
  • Technical Report
    Fluid mechanical measurements within the bottom boundary layer during coastal mixing and optics
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2001-08) Fredericks, Janet J. ; Trowbridge, John H. ; Williams, Albert J. ; Voulgaris, George ; Shaw, William J.
    To quantify and understand the role of vertical mixing processes in determining mid-shelf vertical structure of hydrographic and optical properties and particulate matter, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) funded a program called Coastal Mixing and Optics (CMO), which was conducted at a mid-shelf location in the Mid-Atlantic Bight, south of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. As part of the CMO program, a tall tripod, called 'SuperBASS,' was equipped to collect a year-long, near-bottom time-series of velocity, temperature, salinity and pressure. The BASS sensors were modified to measure absolute as well as differential acoustic travel time, to provide sound speed (a surrogate for temperature) and velocity in a single sample volume. Seven BASS velocity and time travel sensors were placed between 0.4 and 7 meters above bottom. Three acoustic Doppler velocity (ADV) meters were mounted near the bottom-most BASS sensors at 0.3 meters above bottom. The sensors were used to obtain high-quality time-series measurements of velocity and temperature throughout a large fraction of the bottom bondary layer on the New England shelf. The measurements provide vertical structure of the Reynolds-averaged velocity and temperature fields, direct covariance estimates of turbulent Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux, and indirect inertial range estimates of dissipation rate for turbulent kinetic energy and temperature variance. The purpose of this report is to describe the SuperBASS instrumentation and deployments, to provide summaries of the data collected, and to document the processing, preliminary analysis and archival of data collected for this component of the program.
  • Article
    The coupled boundary layers and air-sea transfer experiment in low winds
    (American Meteorological Society, 2007-03) Edson, James B. ; Crawford, Timothy ; Crescenti, Jerry ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Frew, Nelson M. ; Gerbi, Gregory P. ; Plueddemann, Albert J. ; Trowbridge, John H. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Williams, Albert J.
    The Office of Naval Research's Coupled Boundary Layers and Air–Sea Transfer (CBLAST) program is being conducted to investigate the processes that couple the marine boundary layers and govern the exchange of heat, mass, and momentum across the air–sea interface. CBLAST-LOW was designed to investigate these processes at the low-wind extreme where the processes are often driven or strongly modulated by buoyant forcing. The focus was on conditions ranging from negligible wind stress, where buoyant forcing dominates, up to wind speeds where wave breaking and Langmuir circulations play a significant role in the exchange processes. The field program provided observations from a suite of platforms deployed in the coastal ocean south of Martha's Vineyard. Highlights from the measurement campaigns include direct measurement of the momentum and heat fluxes on both sides of the air–sea interface using a specially constructed Air–Sea Interaction Tower (ASIT), and quantification of regional oceanic variability over scales of O (1–104 mm) using a mesoscale mooring array, aircraft-borne remote sensors, drifters, and ship surveys. To our knowledge, the former represents the first successful attempt to directly and simultaneously measure the heat and momentum exchange on both sides of the air–sea interface. The latter provided a 3D picture of the oceanic boundary layer during the month-long main experiment. These observations have been combined with numerical models and direct numerical and large-eddy simulations to investigate the processes that couple the atmosphere and ocean under these conditions. For example, the oceanic measurements have been used in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to investigate the 3D evolution of regional ocean thermal stratification. The ultimate goal of these investigations is to incorporate improved parameterizations of these processes in coupled models such as the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) to improve marine forecasts of wind, waves, and currents.
  • Article
    Vertical structure of dissipation in the nearshore
    (American Meteorological Society, 2007-07) Feddersen, Falk ; Trowbridge, John H. ; Williams, Albert J.
    The vertical structure of the dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy was observed in the nearshore region (3.2-m mean water depth) with a tripod of three acoustic Doppler current meters off a sandy ocean beach. Surface and bottom boundary layer dissipation scaling concepts overlap in this region. No depth-limited wave breaking occurred at the tripod, but wind-induced whitecapping wave breaking did occur. Dissipation is maximum near the surface and minimum at middepth, with a secondary maximum near the bed. The observed dissipation does not follow a surfzone scaling, nor does it follow a “log layer” surface or bottom boundary layer scaling. At the upper two current meters, dissipation follows a modified deep-water breaking-wave scaling. Vertical shear in the mean currents is negligible and shear production magnitude is much less than dissipation, implying that the vertical diffusion of turbulence is important. The increased near-bed secondary dissipation maximum results from a decrease in the turbulent length scale.
  • Technical Report
    Bottom boundary layer stress measurements with BASS tripods : data report STRESS 1988-89
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1993-11) Gross, Thomas F. ; Williams, Albert J.
    Two Benthic Acoustic Stress Sensor (BASS) equipped tripods were deployed in the Sediment Transport Events on Shelves and Slopes (STRESS) experiment in November, 1988, and recovered in March, 1989, on the California Shelf. They measured velocity profiles in the bottom boundary layer over the lowest 5 meters. Transmissometers, thermistors, and a pressure sensor on each tripod provided suspended sediment concentration, stratification, and wave spectral information, as well.
  • Dataset
    Event logs from the U.S. GLOBEC Georges Bank project, from 10 vessels and 104 cruises in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank area from 1994-1999 (GB project)
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2019-02-18) Ashjian, Carin J. ; Bollens, Steve M. ; Bucklin, Ann ; Campbell, Robert ; Davis, Cabell S. ; Durbin, Edward ; Gallager, Scott ; Garrahan, Peter ; Gibson, James ; Gifford, Dian J. ; Green, John ; Greene, Charles H ; Hebert, Dave ; Horgan, Erich ; Houghton, Robert W ; Incze, Lewis ; Irish, Jim ; Ledwell, James R. ; Lentz, Steven J. ; Limeburner, Richard ; Lough, Greg ; Madin, Laurence P. ; Miller, Charles B. ; Mountain, David ; Oakey, Neil ; Schlitz, Ronald ; Sibunka, John ; Smith, Peter C. ; Taylor, Maureen ; Weller, Robert A. ; Wiebe, Peter H. ; Williams, Albert J. ; Wishner, Karen ; Lee, Craig
    Event logs from the U.S. GLOBEC Georges Bank project, from 10 vessels and 104 cruises in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank area from 1994-1999. Event logs provide an overall summary of the sampling activities during a cruise. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/2321