Turchyn Alexandra V.

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Alexandra V.

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  • Article
    Multiple sulfur isotope constraints on the modern sulfur cycle
    (Elsevier, 2014-04-16) Tostevin, Rosalie ; Turchyn, Alexandra V. ; Farquhar, James ; Johnston, David T. ; Eldridge, Daniel L. ; Bishop, James K. B. ; McIlvin, Matthew R.
    We present 28 multiple sulfur isotope measurements of seawater sulfate (δ34SSO4δ34SSO4 and Δ33SSO4Δ33SSO4) from the modern ocean over a range of water depths and sites along the eastern margin of the Pacific Ocean. The average measured δ34SSO4δ34SSO4 is 21.24‰ (±0.88‰,2σ±0.88‰,2σ) with a calculated Δ33SSO4Δ33SSO4 of +0.050‰+0.050‰ (±0.014‰,2σ±0.014‰,2σ). With these values, we use a box-model to place constraints on the gross fraction of pyrite burial in modern sediments. This model presents an improvement on previous estimates of the global pyrite burial flux because it does not rely on the assumed value of δ34Spyriteδ34Spyrite, which is poorly constrained, but instead uses new information about the relationship between δ34Sδ34S and δ33Sδ33S in global marine sulfate. Our calculations indicate that the pyrite burial flux from the modern ocean is between 10% and 45% of the total sulfur lost from the oceans, with a more probable range between 20% and 35%.
  • Article
    Authigenic Formation of Clay Minerals in the Abyssal North Pacific
    (American Geophysical Union, 2022-11-02) Steiner, Zvi ; Rae, James W. B. ; Berelson, William M. ; Adkins, Jess F. ; Hou, Yi ; Dong, Sijia ; Lampronti, Giulio I. ; Liu, Xuewu ; Achterberg, Eric P. ; Subhas, Adam V. ; Turchyn, Alexandra V.
    Present estimates of the biogeochemical cycles of calcium, strontium, and potassium in the ocean reveal large imbalances between known input and output fluxes. Using pore fluid, incubation, and solid sediment data from North Pacific multi‐corer cores we show that, contrary to the common paradigm, the top centimeters of abyssal sediments can be an active site of authigenic precipitation of clay minerals. In this region, clay authigenesis is the dominant sink for potassium and strontium and consumes nearly all calcium released from benthic dissolution of calcium carbonates. These observations support the idea that clay authigenesis occurring over broad regions of the world ocean may be a major buffer for ocean chemistry on the time scale of the ocean overturning circulation, and key to the long‐term stability of Earth's climate.Key PointsNorth Pacific red clay sediments are a sink for marine calcium, strontium, and potassiumAuthigenic formation of clay minerals is prevalent in pelagic sediments throughout the North PacificThe main mechanism for clay formation is recrystallization of aluminosilicates, neoformation can occur in biogenic silica rich sediments
  • Article
    Deconstructing the Lomagundi-Jatuli Carbon Isotope Excursion
    (Annual Reviews, 2023-05-31) Hodgskiss, Malcolm S. W. ; Crockford, Peter W. ; Turchyn, Alexandra V.
    The early to mid-Paleoproterozoic Lomagundi-Jatuli Excursion (LJE) is ostensibly the largest magnitude (approximately +5 to +30‰), longest duration (ca. 130-250 million years) positive carbon isotope excursion measured in carbonate rocks in Earth history. The LJE has been attributed to large nutrient fluxes, an increase in the size of the biosphere, a reorganization of the global carbon cycle, and oxygenation of the atmosphere. However, significant debate remains about its genesis, synchroneity, global-versus-local extent, and role in atmospheric oxygenation. Here we review existing models and mechanisms suggested for the LJE and analyze a compilation of ∼9,400 δ13 Ccarb and associated contextual data. These data call into question the interpretation of the LJE as a globally synchronous carbon isotope excursion and suggest that any model for the LJE must account for both the absence of a clearly defined initiation and termination of the excursion and a facies-dependent expression of 13C-enrichment.The Lomagundi-Jatuli Excursion (LJE) continues to challenge current understandings of the carbon cycle.Understanding this excursion is critical for reconstructing biogeochemical cycles and atmospheric oxygenation through Earth history.Some evidence indicates local rather than global changes in δ13CDIC and raises the possibility of asynchronous, local excursions.Resolving whether the LJE was globally synchronous or asynchronous is essential for discriminating between different models.