Parks Susan E.

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Parks
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Susan E.
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Now showing 1 - 15 of 15
  • Article
    Common humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) sound types for passive acoustic monitoring
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2011-01) Stimpert, Alison K. ; Au, Whitlow W. L. ; Parks, Susan E. ; Hurst, Thomas P.
    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are one of several baleen whale species in the Northwest Atlantic that coexist with vessel traffic and anthropogenic noise. Passive acoustic monitoring strategies can be used in conservation management, but the first step toward understanding the acoustic behavior of a species is a good description of its acoustic repertoire. Digital acoustic tags (DTAGs) were placed on humpback whales in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary to record and describe the non-song sounds being produced in conjunction with foraging activities. Peak frequencies of sounds were generally less than 1 kHz, but ranged as high as 6 kHz, and sounds were generally less than 1 s in duration. Cluster analysis distilled the dataset into eight groups of sounds with similar acoustic properties. The two most stereotyped and distinctive types (“wops” and “grunts”) were also identified aurally as candidates for use in passive acoustic monitoring. This identification of two of the most common sound types will be useful for moving forward conservation efforts on this Northwest Atlantic feeding ground.
  • Article
    Long-term passive acoustic recordings track the changing distribution of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) from 2004 to 2014
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2017-10-18) Davis, Genevieve E. ; Baumgartner, Mark F. ; Bonnell, Julianne M. ; Bell, Joel ; Berchok, Catherine L. ; Bort Thornton, Jacqueline ; Brault, Solange ; Buchanan, Gary ; Charif, Russell A. ; Cholewiak, Danielle ; Clark, Christopher W. ; Corkeron, Peter ; Delarue, Julien ; Dudzinski, Kathleen ; Hatch, Leila ; Hildebrand, John ; Hodge, Lynne ; Klinck, Holger ; Kraus, Scott D. ; Martin, Bruce ; Mellinger, David K. ; Moors-Murphy, Hilary ; Nieukirk, Sharon ; Nowacek, Douglas P. ; Parks, Susan E. ; Read, Andrew J. ; Rice, Aaron N. ; Risch, Denise ; Širović, Ana ; Soldevilla, Melissa ; Stafford, Kathleen M. ; Stanistreet, Joy ; Summers, Erin ; Todd, Sean ; Warde, Ann M. ; Van Parijs, Sofie M.
    Given new distribution patterns of the endangered North Atlantic right whale (NARW; Eubalaena glacialis) population in recent years, an improved understanding of spatio-temporal movements are imperative for the conservation of this species. While so far visual data have provided most information on NARW movements, passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) was used in this study in order to better capture year-round NARW presence. This project used PAM data from 2004 to 2014 collected by 19 organizations throughout the western North Atlantic Ocean. Overall, data from 324 recorders (35,600 days) were processed and analyzed using a classification and detection system. Results highlight almost year-round habitat use of the western North Atlantic Ocean, with a decrease in detections in waters off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in summer and fall. Data collected post 2010 showed an increased NARW presence in the mid-Atlantic region and a simultaneous decrease in the northern Gulf of Maine. In addition, NARWs were widely distributed across most regions throughout winter months. This study demonstrates that a large-scale analysis of PAM data provides significant value to understanding and tracking shifts in large whale movements over long time scales.
  • Dataset
    Eubalaena glacialis Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts 4/4/2010 Animal a Depth Profile
    (The DTAG Project, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, contacts: dtag@whoi.edu; and The EAARL, Pennsylvania State University, contacts: Susan Parks, sep20@psu.edu, 2010-12-14) Parks, Susan E. ; Environmental Acoustics Program, Pennsylvania State University ; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Location: Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern Atlantic Right Whale), Permit: NOAA Fisheries Permit# 775-1875, Water Depth: 15m
  • Dataset
    Eubalaena glacialis Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts 4/2/2010 Animal a Depth Profile
    (The DTAG Project, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, contacts: dtag@whoi.edu; and The EAARL, Pennsylvania State University, contacts: Susan Parks, sep20@psu.edu, 2010-12-14) Parks, Susan E. ; Environmental Acoustics Program, Pennsylvania State University ; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Location: Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern Atlantic Right Whale), Permit: NOAA Fisheries Permit# 775-1875, Water Depth: 20m
  • Dataset
    Eubalaena glacialis Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts 4/17/2009 Animal a Depth Profile
    (The DTAG Project, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, contact: dtag@whoi.edu; and The EAARL, Pennsylvania State University, contacts: Susan Parks, sep20@psu.edu, 2010-12-14) Parks, Susan E. ; Environmental Acoustics Program, Pennsylvania State University ; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Location: Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern Atlantic Right Whale), Permit: Scott Kraus NMFS permit #655-1652-01, Water Depth: 30m
  • Dataset
    Eubalaena glacialis Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts 4/3/2010 Animal b Depth Profile
    (The DTAG Project, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, contacts: dtag@whoi.edu; and The EAARL, Pennsylvania State University, contacts: Susan Parks, sep20@psu.edu, 2010-12-14) Parks, Susan E. ; Environmental Acoustics Program, Pennsylvania State University ; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Location: Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern Atlantic Right Whale), Permit: NOAA Fisheries Permit# 775-1875, Water Depth: 15m
  • Article
    Bottom side-roll feeding by humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the southern Gulf of Maine, U.S.A
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-07-24) Ware, Colin ; Wiley, David N. ; Friedlaender, Ari S. ; Weinrich, Mason T. ; Hazen, Elliott L. ; Bocconcelli, Alessandro ; Parks, Susan E. ; Stimpert, Alison K. ; Thompson, Michael A. ; Abernathy, Kyler
    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are known for the variety and complexity of their feeding behaviors. Here we report on the use of synchronous motion and acoustic recording tags (DTAGs) to provide the first detailed kinematic descriptions of humpback whales using bottom side-rolls (BSRs) to feed along the seafloor. We recorded 3,505 events from 19 animals (individual range 8–722). By animal, mean BSR duration ranged from 14.1 s to 36.2 s.; mean body roll angle from 80º to 121º, and mean pitch from 7º to 38º. The median interval between sequential BSRs, by animal, ranged from 24.0 s to 63.6 s and animals tended to maintain a consistent BSR heading during long BSR series encompassing multiple dives. BSRs were most frequent between 2200 and 0400. We identify three classes of behavior: simple side-roll, side-roll inversion, and repetitive scooping. Results indicate that BSR feeding is a common technique in the study area and there is both coordination and noncoordination between animals. We argue that this behavior is not lunge feeding as normally characterized, because animals are moving slowly through the event. The behavior also leads to vulnerability to entanglement in bottom-set fishing gear, a major mortality factor for the species.
  • Article
    Exploring movement patterns and changing distributions of baleen whales in the western North Atlantic using a decade of passive acoustic data
    (Wiley, 2020-05-25) Davis, Genevieve E. ; Baumgartner, Mark F. ; Corkeron, Peter ; Bell, Joel ; Berchok, Catherine L. ; Bonnell, Julianne M. ; Bort Thornton, Jacqueline ; Brault, Solange ; Buchanan, Gary ; Cholewiak, Danielle ; Clark, Christopher W. ; Delarue, Julien ; Hatch, Leila ; Klinck, Holger ; Kraus, Scott D. ; Martin, Bruce ; Mellinger, David K. ; Moors-Murphy, Hilary ; Nieukirk, Sharon ; Nowacek, Douglas P. ; Parks, Susan E. ; Parry, Dawn ; Pegg, Nicole ; Read, Andrew J. ; Rice, Aaron N. ; Risch, Denise ; Scott, Alyssa ; Soldevilla, Melissa ; Stafford, Kathleen M. ; Stanistreet, Joy ; Summers, Erin ; Todd, Sean ; Van Parijs, Sofie M.
    Six baleen whale species are found in the temperate western North Atlantic Ocean, with limited information existing on the distribution and movement patterns for most. There is mounting evidence of distributional shifts in many species, including marine mammals, likely because of climate‐driven changes in ocean temperature and circulation. Previous acoustic studies examined the occurrence of minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) and North Atlantic right whales (NARW; Eubalaena glacialis ). This study assesses the acoustic presence of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae ), sei (B. borealis ), fin (B. physalus ), and blue whales (B. musculus ) over a decade, based on daily detections of their vocalizations. Data collected from 2004 to 2014 on 281 bottom‐mounted recorders, totaling 35,033 days, were processed using automated detection software and screened for each species' presence. A published study on NARW acoustics revealed significant changes in occurrence patterns between the periods of 2004–2010 and 2011–2014; therefore, these same time periods were examined here. All four species were present from the Southeast United States to Greenland; humpback whales were also present in the Caribbean. All species occurred throughout all regions in the winter, suggesting that baleen whales are widely distributed during these months. Each of the species showed significant changes in acoustic occurrence after 2010. Similar to NARWs, sei whales had higher acoustic occurrence in mid‐Atlantic regions after 2010. Fin, blue, and sei whales were more frequently detected in the northern latitudes of the study area after 2010. Despite this general northward shift, all four species were detected less on the Scotian Shelf area after 2010, matching documented shifts in prey availability in this region. A decade of acoustic observations have shown important distributional changes over the range of baleen whales, mirroring known climatic shifts and identifying new habitats that will require further protection from anthropogenic threats like fixed fishing gear, shipping, and noise pollution.
  • Dataset
    Eubalaena glacialis Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts 4/13/2010 Animal a Depth Profile
    (The EAARL, Pennsylvania State University, contacts: Susan Parks, sep20@psu.edu; and The DTAG Project, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, contacts: dtag@whoi.edu, 2010-12-14) Parks, Susan E. ; Environmental Acoustics Program, Pennsylvania State University ; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Location: Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern Atlantic Right Whale), Permit: NOAA Fisheries Permit# 775-1875, Water Depth: 29m
  • Dataset
    Eubalaena glacialis Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts 4/5/2010 Animal a Depth Profile
    (The DTAG Project, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, contacts: dtag@whoi.edu; and The EAARL, Pennsylvania State University, contacts: Susan Parks, sep20@psu.edu, 2010-12-14) Parks, Susan E. ; Environmental Acoustics Program, Pennsylvania State University ; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Location: Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern Atlantic Right Whale), Permit: NOAA Fisheries Permit# 775-1875, Water Depth: 31m
  • Dataset
    Eubalaena glacialis Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts 4/2/2010 Animal b Depth Profile
    (The DTAG Project, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, contacts: dtag@whoi.edu; and The EAARL, Pennsylvania State University, contacts: Susan Parks, sep20@psu.edu, 2010-12-14) Parks, Susan E. ; Environmental Acoustics Program, Pennsylvania State University ; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Location: Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern Atlantic Right Whale), Permit: NOAA Fisheries Permit# 775-1875, Water Depth: 29m
  • Dataset
    Eubalaena glacialis Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts 4/10/2009 Animal a Depth Profile
    (The EAARL, Pennsylvania State University, contacts: Susan Parks, sep20@psu.edu; and The DTAG Project, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, contacts: dtag@whoi.edu, 2010-12-14) Parks, Susan E. ; Environmental Acoustics Program, Pennsylvania State University ; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Location: Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern Atlantic Right Whale), Permit: Scott Kraus NMFS permit #655-1652-01, Water Depth: 24m
  • Dataset
    Eubalaena glacialis Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts 4/25/2009 Animal a Depth Profile
    (The EAARL, Pennsylvania State University, contacts: Susan Parks, sep20@psu.edu; and The DTAG Project, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, contacts: dtag@whoi.edu, 2010-12-14) Parks, Susan E. ; Environmental Acoustics Program, Pennsylvania State University ; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Location: Bay of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern Atlantic Right Whale), Permit: Scott Kraus NMFS permit #655-1652-01, Water Depth: 25m
  • Article
    High source levels and small active space of high-pitched song in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus)
    (Public Library of Science, 2012-12-26) Tervo, Outi M. ; Christoffersen, Mads F. ; Simon, Malene ; Miller, Lee A. ; Jensen, Frants H. ; Parks, Susan E. ; Madsen, Peter T.
    The low-frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally powerful, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high frequency song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Western Greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. Four independent, GPS-synchronized hydrophones were deployed through holes in the ice to localize vocalizing bowhead whales, estimate source levels and measure ambient noise. The song had a mean apparent source level of 185±2 dB rms re 1 µPa @ 1 m and a high mean centroid frequency of 444±48 Hz. Using measured ambient noise levels in the area and Arctic sound spreading models, the estimated active space of these song notes is between 40 and 130 km, an order of magnitude smaller than the estimated active space of low frequency blue and fin whale songs produced at similar source levels and for similar noise conditions. We propose that bowhead whales spatially compensate for their smaller communication range through mating aggregations that co-evolved with broadband song to form a complex and dynamic acoustically mediated sexual display.
  • Thesis
    Acoustic communication in the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis)
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2003-09) Parks, Susan E.
    The focus of this thesis is the use of sound for communication by the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). The surface active group (SAG) is the predominant social interaction in this species for which use of sound has been documented. Different group compositions in SAGs indicate that both potentially reproductive and non-reproductive groups have been combined under one labeL. Sound production in SAGs suggests that females form and maintain the groups by producing Scream calls. Males produce Upcalls to advertise their presence as they come into a group or when the female is on a dive. Males may use Gunshot sounds as threat signals to other males in the group or potentially as reproductive advertisement signals to the female. Some calves produce Warble sounds in SAGs. This may be limited to female calves. This description of acoustic activity in the groups adds to the picture of the SAGs as complex interactions between individuals, rather than simple groups with only one whale producing all the sounds to attract other whales to the group. Playback experiments demonstrate that right whales can use sounds from SAGs to locate the groups. Male right whales approached both North Atlantic and Southern right whale SAG playbacks. Female right whales only approached Southern right whale playbacks. Anatomical modeling resulted in a frequency range of hearing for the right whale (10 Hz - 22 kHz) that is consistent with the sounds that they produce and overlaps the frequency range of most anthropogenic noise sources. This combination of research provides a thorough description how North Atlantic right whales use sound in SAGs and how increasing levels of noise in the oceans may impact right whales in these groups.