Nguyen An T.

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An T.

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  • Article
    Putting it all together: Adding value to the global ocean and climate observing systems with complete self-consistent ocean state and parameter estimates.
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-03-04) Heimbach, Patrick ; Fukumori, Ichiro ; Hill, Christopher N. ; Ponte, Rui M. ; Stammer, Detlef ; Wunsch, Carl ; Campin, Jean-Michel ; Cornuelle, Bruce D. ; Fenty, Ian ; Forget, Gael ; Kohl, Armin ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Menemenlis, Dimitris ; Nguyen, An T. ; Piecuch, Christopher G. ; Trossman, David S. ; Verdy, Ariane ; Wang, Ou ; Zhang, Hong
    In 1999, the consortium on Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) set out to synthesize the hydrographic data collected by the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the satellite sea surface height measurements into a complete and coherent description of the ocean, afforded by an ocean general circulation model. Twenty years later, the versatility of ECCO's estimation framework enables the production of global and regional ocean and sea-ice state estimates, that incorporate not only the initial suite of data and its successors, but nearly all data streams available today. New observations include measurements from Argo floats, marine mammal-based hydrography, satellite retrievals of ocean bottom pressure and sea surface salinity, as well as ice-tethered profiled data in polar regions. The framework also produces improved estimates of uncertain inputs, including initial conditions, surface atmospheric state variables, and mixing parameters. The freely available state estimates and related efforts are property-conserving, allowing closed budget calculations that are a requisite to detect, quantify, and understand the evolution of climate-relevant signals, as mandated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) protocol. The solutions can be reproduced by users through provision of the underlying modeling and assimilation machinery. Regional efforts have spun off that offer increased spatial resolution to better resolve relevant processes. Emerging foci of ECCO are on a global sea level changes, in particular contributions from polar ice sheets, and the increased use of biogeochemical and ecosystem data to constrain global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Challenges in the coming decade include provision of uncertainties, informing observing system design, globally increased resolution, and moving toward a coupled Earth system estimation with consistent momentum, heat and freshwater fluxes between the ocean, atmosphere, cryosphere and land.
  • Article
    Numerical investigation of the Arctic ice–ocean boundary layer and implications for air–sea gas fluxes
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2017-01-23) Bigdeli, Arash ; Loose, Brice ; Nguyen, An T. ; Cole, Sylvia T.
    In ice-covered regions it is challenging to determine constituent budgets – for heat and momentum, but also for biologically and climatically active gases like carbon dioxide and methane. The harsh environment and relative data scarcity make it difficult to characterize even the physical properties of the ocean surface. Here, we sought to evaluate if numerical model output helps us to better estimate the physical forcing that drives the air–sea gas exchange rate (k) in sea ice zones. We used the budget of radioactive 222Rn in the mixed layer to illustrate the effect that sea ice forcing has on gas budgets and air–sea gas exchange. Appropriate constraint of the 222Rn budget requires estimates of sea ice velocity, concentration, mixed-layer depth, and water velocities, as well as their evolution in time and space along the Lagrangian drift track of a mixed-layer water parcel. We used 36, 9 and 2 km horizontal resolution of regional Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) configuration with fine vertical spacing to evaluate the capability of the model to reproduce these parameters. We then compared the model results to existing field data including satellite, moorings and ice-tethered profilers. We found that mode sea ice coverage agrees with satellite-derived observation 88 to 98 % of the time when averaged over the Beaufort Gyre, and model sea ice speeds have 82 % correlation with observations. The model demonstrated the capacity to capture the broad trends in the mixed layer, although with a significant bias. Model water velocities showed only 29 % correlation with point-wise in situ data. This correlation remained low in all three model resolution simulations and we argued that is largely due to the quality of the input atmospheric forcing. Overall, we found that even the coarse-resolution model can make a modest contribution to gas exchange parameterization, by resolving the time variation of parameters that drive the 222Rn budget, including rate of mixed-layer change and sea ice forcings.
  • Article
    An analysis of Atlantic water in the Arctic Ocean using the Arctic subpolar gyre state estimate and observations
    (Elsevier, 2021-09-13) Grabon, Jeffrey S. ; Toole, John M. ; Nguyen, An T. ; Krishfield, Richard A.
    The Atlantic Water (AW) Layer in the Arctic Subpolar gyre sTate Estimate Release 1 (ASTE R1), a data-constrained, regional, medium-resolution coupled ocean-sea ice model, is analyzed for the period 2004–2017 in combination with available hydrographic data. The study, focusing on AW defined as the waters between two bounding isopycnals, examines the time-average, mean seasonal cycle and interannual variability of AW Layer properties and circulation. A surge of AW, marked by rapid increases in mean AW Layer potential temperature and AW Layer thickness, begins two years into the state estimate and traverses the Arctic Ocean along boundary current pathways at a speed of 1–2 cm/s. The surge also alters AW circulation, including a reversal in flow direction along the Lomonosov Ridge, resulting in a new quasi-steady AW circulation from 2010 through the end of the state estimate period. The time-mean AW circulation during this latter time period indicates that a significant amount of AW spreads over the Lomonosov Ridge rather than directly returning along the ridge to Fram Strait. A three-layer depiction of the time-averaged ASTE R1 overturning circulation within the Arctic Ocean reveals that more AW is converted to colder, fresher Surface Layer water than is transformed to Deep and Bottom Water (1.2 Sv vs. 0.4 Sv). ASTE R1 also exhibits an increase in the volume of AW over the study period at a rate of 1.4 Sv, with near compensating decrease in Deep and Bottom Water volume. Observed AW properties compared to ASTE R1 output reveal increasing misfit during the simulated period with the ASTE R1 AW Layer generally being warmer and thicker than in observations.
  • Article
    On the benefit of current and future ALPS data for improving Arctic coupled ocean-sea ice state estimation
    (Oceanography Society, 2017-06) Nguyen, An T. ; Ocana, Victor ; Garg, Vikram ; Heimbach, Patrick ; Toole, John M. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Rainville, Luc
    Autonomous and Lagrangian platforms and sensors (ALPS) have revolutionized the way the subsurface ocean is observed. The synergy between ALPS-based observations and coupled ocean-sea ice state and parameter estimation as practiced in the Arctic Subpolar gyre sTate Estimate (ASTE) project is illustrated through several examples. In the western Arctic, Ice-Tethered Profilers have been providing important hydrographic constraints of the water column down to 800 m depth since 2004. ASTE takes advantage of these detailed constraints to infer vertical profiles of diapycnal mixing rates in the central Canada Basin. The state estimation framework is also used to explore the potential utility of Argo-type floats in regions with sparse data coverage, such as the eastern Arctic and the seasonal ice zones. Finally, the framework is applied to identify potential deployment sites that optimize the impact of float measurements on bulk oceanographic quantities of interest.
  • Article
    Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project models
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-03-15) Johnson, Mark ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Nguyen, An T. ; Lindsay, Ron ; Haas, Christian ; Zhang, Jinlun ; Diansky, Nikolay ; Kwok, Ron ; Maslowski, Wieslaw ; Hakkinen, Sirpa M. A. ; Ashik, Igor M. ; de Cuevas, Beverly
    Six Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project model simulations are compared with estimates of sea ice thickness derived from pan-Arctic satellite freeboard measurements (2004–2008); airborne electromagnetic measurements (2001–2009); ice draft data from moored instruments in Fram Strait, the Greenland Sea, and the Beaufort Sea (1992–2008) and from submarines (1975–2000); and drill hole data from the Arctic basin, Laptev, and East Siberian marginal seas (1982–1986) and coastal stations (1998–2009). Despite an assessment of six models that differ in numerical methods, resolution, domain, forcing, and boundary conditions, the models generally overestimate the thickness of measured ice thinner than ∼2 m and underestimate the thickness of ice measured thicker than about ∼2 m. In the regions of flat immobile landfast ice (shallow Siberian Seas with depths less than 25–30 m), the models generally overestimate both the total observed sea ice thickness and rates of September and October ice growth from observations by more than 4 times and more than one standard deviation, respectively. The models do not reproduce conditions of fast ice formation and growth. Instead, the modeled fast ice is replaced with pack ice which drifts, generating ridges of increasing ice thickness, in addition to thermodynamic ice growth. Considering all observational data sets, the better correlations and smaller differences from observations are from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II and Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System models.
  • Article
    Arctic pathways of Pacific Water : Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-01-08) Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Karcher, Michael ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Gerdes, Rudiger ; de Cuevas, Beverly ; Golubeva, Elena ; Kauker, Frank ; Nguyen, An T. ; Platov, Gennady A. ; Wadley, Martin ; Watanabe, Eiji ; Coward, Andrew C. ; Nurser, A. J. George
    Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state-of-the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin.