Jakoboski Julie K.

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Julie K.

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  • Article
    The equatorial current system west of the Galapagos Islands during the 2014-16 El Niño as observed by underwater gliders
    (American Meteorological Society, 2020-12-21) Rudnick, Daniel L. ; Owens, W. Brechner ; Johnston, T. M. Shaun ; Karnauskas, Kristopher B. ; Jakoboski, Julie K. ; Todd, Robert E.
    The strong El Niño of 2014–16 was observed west of the Galápagos Islands through sustained deployment of underwater gliders. Three years of observations began in October 2013 and ended in October 2016, with observations at longitudes 93° and 95°W between latitudes 2°N and 2°S. In total, there were over 3000 glider-days of data, covering over 50 000 km with over 12 000 profiles. Coverage was superior closer to the Galápagos on 93°W, where gliders were equipped with sensors to measure velocity as well as temperature, salinity, and pressure. The repeated glider transects are analyzed to produce highly resolved mean sections and maps of observed variables as functions of time, latitude, and depth. The mean sections reveal the structure of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), the South Equatorial Current, and the equatorial front. The mean fields are used to calculate potential vorticity Q and Richardson number Ri. Gradients in the mean are strong enough to make the sign of Q opposite to that of planetary vorticity and to have Ri near unity, suggestive of mixing. Temporal variability is dominated by the 2014–16 El Niño, with the arrival of depressed isopycnals documented in 2014 and 2015. Increases in eastward velocity advect anomalously salty water and are uncorrelated with warm temperatures and deep isopycnals. Thus, vertical advection is important to changes in heat, and horizontal advection is relevant to changes in salt. Implications of this work include possibilities for future research, model assessment and improvement, and sustained observations across the equatorial Pacific.
  • Article
    Bifurcation and upwelling of the equatorial undercurrent west of the Galapagos Archipelago
    (American Meteorological Society, 2020-03-19) Jakoboski, Julie K. ; Todd, Robert E. ; Owens, W. Brechner ; Karnauskas, Kristopher B. ; Rudnick, Daniel L.
    The Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) encounters the Galápagos Archipelago on the equator as it flows eastward across the Pacific. The impact of the Galápagos Archipelago on the EUC in the eastern equatorial Pacific remains largely unknown. In this study, the path of the EUC as it reaches the Galápagos Archipelago is measured directly using high-resolution observations obtained by autonomous underwater gliders. Gliders were deployed along three lines that define a closed region with the Galápagos Archipelago as the eastern boundary and 93°W from 2°S to 2°N as the western boundary. Twelve transects were simultaneously occupied along the three lines during 52 days in April–May 2016. Analysis of individual glider transects and average sections along each line show that the EUC splits around the Galápagos Archipelago. Velocity normal to the transects is used to estimate net horizontal volume transport into the volume. Downward integration of the net horizontal transport profile provides an estimate of the time- and areal-averaged vertical velocity profile over the 52-day time period. Local maxima in vertical velocity occur at depths of 25 and 280 m with magnitudes of (1.7 ± 0.6) × 10−5 m s−1 and (8.0 ± 1.6) × 10−5 m s−1, respectively. Volume transport as a function of salinity indicates that water crossing 93°W south (north) of 0.4°S tends to flow around the south (north) side of the Galápagos Archipelago. Comparisons are made between previous observational and modeling studies with differences attributed to effects of the strong 2015/16 El Niño event, the annual cycle of local winds, and varying longitudes between studies of the equatorial Pacific.
  • Article
    The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent in three generations of global climate models and glider observations
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-10-22) Karnauskas, Kristopher B. ; Jakoboski, Julie K. ; Johnston, T. M. Shaun ; Owens, W. Brechner ; Rudnick, Daniel L. ; Todd, Robert E.
    The Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) is a vital component of the coupled ocean‐atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific. The details of its termination near the Galápagos Islands in the eastern Pacific have an outsized importance to regional circulation and ecosystems. Subject to diverse physical processes, the EUC is also a rigorous benchmark for global climate models (GCMs). Simulations of the EUC in three generations of GCMs are evaluated relative to recent underwater glider observations along 93°W. Simulations of the EUC have improved, but a slow bias of ~36% remains in the eastern Pacific, along with a dependence on resolution. Additionally, the westward surface current is too slow, and stratification is too strong (weak) by ~50% above (within) the EUC. These biases have implications for mixing in the equatorial cold tongue. Downstream lies the Galápagos, now resolved to varying degrees by GCMs. Properly representing the Galápagos is necessary to avoid new biases as the EUC improves.
  • Article
    Potential Vorticity and Instability in the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent West of the Galápagos Archipelago
    (American Meteorological Society, 2022-08-01) Jakoboski, Julie K. ; Todd, Robert E. ; Owens, W. Brechner ; Karnauskas, Kristopher B. ; Rudnick, Daniel L.
    The Galápagos Archipelago lies on the equator in the path of the eastward flowing Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC). When the EUC reaches the archipelago, it upwells and bifurcates into a north and south branch around the archipelago at a latitude determined by topography. Since the Coriolis parameter (f) equals zero at the equator, strong velocity gradients associated with the EUC can result in Ertel potential vorticity (Q) having sign opposite that of planetary vorticity near the equator. Observations collected by underwater gliders deployed just west of the Galápagos Archipelago during 2013–16 are used to estimate Q and to diagnose associated instabilities that may impact the Galápagos Cold Pool. Estimates of Q are qualitatively conserved along streamlines, consistent with the 2.5-layer, inertial model of the EUC by Pedlosky. The Q with sign opposite of f is advected south of the Galápagos Archipelago when the EUC core is located south of the bifurcation latitude. The horizontal gradient of Q suggests that the region between 2°S and 2°N above 100 m is barotropically unstable, while limited regions are baroclinically unstable. Conditions conducive to symmetric instability are observed between the EUC core and the equator and within the southern branch of the undercurrent. Using 2-month and 3-yr averages, e-folding time scales are 2–11 days, suggesting that symmetric instability can persist on those time scales.
  • Thesis
    Equatorial ocean dynamics impacting upwelling west of the Galápagos Archipelago
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2019-09) Jakoboski, Julie K.
    The Galápagos Cold Pool (GCP) is a region of anomalously cold sea surface temperature (SST) just west of the Galápagos Archipelago. Modeling studies have shown that the GCP is maintained by wind- and current-driven upwelling. The Galápagos Archipelago lies on the equator, in the path of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) as it flows eastward across the Pacific at the depth of the thermocline. It is hypothesized that the EUC upwells into the GCP as it reaches the topographical barrier of the Galápagos Archipelago. The path of the EUC in the vicinity of the archipelago is not well understood. The ‘Repeat Observations by Gliders in the Equatorial Region’ (ROGER) program deployed a fleet of Spray autonomous underwater gliders in the region just west of the Galápagos Archipelago from 2013 – 2016 with the goal of continuously occupying three transects that form a closed area, with the archipelago as the eastern boundary. Gliders obtained subsurface measurements of temperature, salinity, and velocity with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. These measurements are used to observe the path of the EUC as it bifurcates into a north and south branch around the Galápagos Archipelago. Net horizontal transport into the volume defined by the closed area formed by the glider transects is used to estimate an average vertical velocity profile in the region of the GCP, indicating upwelling in the upper 300 m. The bifurcation latitude of the EUC, estimated to be approximately 0.4∘S from volume transport as a function of salinity, is coincident with the meridional center of the archipelago, suggesting the bifurcation latitude is topographically controlled. Ertel potential vorticity and a Bernoulli function are qualitatively conserved, supporting an inertial model of the EUC. Average spectral variance from Argo profiling float observations is used to show that tropical instability waves propagate with frequency and wavelength consistent with linearized, equatorial 𝛽-plane model results and may impact the GCP, according to their vertical structure.