Yancey Paul H.
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PreprintHypotaurine and thiotaurine as indicators of sulfide exposure in bivalves and vestimentiferans from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps( 2006-08-24) Brand, Garth L. ; Horak, Robin V. ; Le Bris, Nadine ; Goffredi, Shana K. ; Carney, Susan L. ; Govenar, Breea ; Yancey, Paul H.Vesicomyid clams, vestimentiferans, and some bathymodiolin mussels from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps possess thiotrophic endosymbionts, high levels of hypotaurine and, in tissues with symbionts, thiotaurine. The latter, a product of hypotaurine and sulfide, may store and/or transport sulfide non-toxically, and the ratio to hypotaurine plus thiotaurine (Th/[H+Th]) may reflect an animal's sulfide exposure. To test this, we analyzed seep and vent animals with in situ sulfide measurements. Calyptogena kilmeri clams occur at high-sulfide seeps in Monterey Canyon, while C. (Vesicomya) pacifica clams occur at seeps with lower levels but take up and metabolize sulfide more effectively. From one seep where they co-occur, both had gill thiotaurine contents at 22-25 mmol/kg wet mass, and while C. (V.) pacifica had a higher blood sulfide level, it had a lower Th/[H+Th] (0.39) than C. kilmeri (0.63). However, these same species from different seeps with lower sulfide exposures had lower ratios. Bathymodiolus thermophilus (East Pacific Rise [EPR 9°50'N]) from high- (84 μM) and a low- (7 μM) sulfide vents had gill ratios of 0.40 and 0.12, respectively. Trophosomes of Riftia pachyptila (EPR 9°50'N) from medium- (33 μM) and low- (4 μM) sulfide vents had ratios of 0.23 and 0.20, respectively (not significantly different). Ridgeia piscesae vestimentiferans (Juan de Fuca Ridge) have very different phenotypes at high- and low-sulfide sites, and their trophosomes had the greatest differences: 0.81 and 0.04 ratios from high- and low-sulfide sites, respectively. Thus Th/[H+Th] may indicate sulfide exposure levels within species, but not in interspecies comparisons, possibly due to phylogenetic and metabolic differences. Total H+Th was constant within each species (except in R. piscesae); the sum may indicate the maximum potential sulfide load that a species faces.
ArticleThe distribution of benthic biomass in hadal trenches : a modelling approach to investigate the effect of vertical and lateral organic matter transport to the seafloor(Elsevier, 2015-02-19) Ichino, Matteo C. ; Clark, Malcolm R. ; Drazen, Jeffrey C. ; Jamieson, Alan ; Jones, Daniel O. B. ; Martin, Adrian P. ; Rowden, Ashley A. ; Shank, Timothy M. ; Yancey, Paul H. ; Ruhl, Henry A.Most of our knowledge about deep-sea habitats is limited to bathyal (200–3000 m) and abyssal depths (3000–6000 m), while relatively little is known about the hadal zone (6000–11,000 m). The basic paradigm for the distribution of deep seafloor biomass suggests that the reduction in biomass and average body size of benthic animals along depth gradients is mainly related to surface productivity and remineralisation of sinking particulate organic carbon with depth. However, there is evidence that this pattern is somewhat reversed in hadal trenches by the funnelling of organic sediments, which would result in increased food availability along the axis of the trenches and towards their deeper regions. Therefore, despite the extreme hydrostatic pressure and remoteness from the pelagic food supply, it is hypothesized that biomass can increase with depth in hadal trenches. We developed a numerical model of gravitational lateral sediment transport along the seafloor as a function of slope, using the Kermadec Trench, near New Zealand, as a test environment. We propose that local topography (at a scale of tens of kilometres) and trench shape can be used to provide useful estimates of local accumulation of food and, therefore, patterns of benthic biomass. Orientation and steepness of local slopes are the drivers of organic sediment accumulation in the model, which result in higher biomass along the axis of the trench, especially in the deepest spots, and lower biomass on the slopes, from which most sediment is removed. The model outputs for the Kermadec Trench are in agreement with observations suggesting the occurrence of a funnelling effect and substantial spatial variability in biomass inside a trench. Further trench surveys will be needed to determine the degree to which seafloor currents are important compared with the gravity-driven transport modelled here. These outputs can also benefit future hadal investigations by highlighting areas of potential biological interest, on which to focus sampling effort. Comprehensive exploration of hadal trenches will, in turn, provide datasets for improving the model parameters and increasing predictive power.