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ArticlePutting it all together: Adding value to the global ocean and climate observing systems with complete self-consistent ocean state and parameter estimates.(Frontiers Media, 2019-03-04) Heimbach, Patrick ; Fukumori, Ichiro ; Hill, Christopher N. ; Ponte, Rui M. ; Stammer, Detlef ; Wunsch, Carl ; Campin, Jean-Michel ; Cornuelle, Bruce D. ; Fenty, Ian ; Forget, Gael ; Kohl, Armin ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; Menemenlis, Dimitris ; Nguyen, An T. ; Piecuch, Christopher G. ; Trossman, David S. ; Verdy, Ariane ; Wang, Ou ; Zhang, HongIn 1999, the consortium on Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) set out to synthesize the hydrographic data collected by the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the satellite sea surface height measurements into a complete and coherent description of the ocean, afforded by an ocean general circulation model. Twenty years later, the versatility of ECCO's estimation framework enables the production of global and regional ocean and sea-ice state estimates, that incorporate not only the initial suite of data and its successors, but nearly all data streams available today. New observations include measurements from Argo floats, marine mammal-based hydrography, satellite retrievals of ocean bottom pressure and sea surface salinity, as well as ice-tethered profiled data in polar regions. The framework also produces improved estimates of uncertain inputs, including initial conditions, surface atmospheric state variables, and mixing parameters. The freely available state estimates and related efforts are property-conserving, allowing closed budget calculations that are a requisite to detect, quantify, and understand the evolution of climate-relevant signals, as mandated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) protocol. The solutions can be reproduced by users through provision of the underlying modeling and assimilation machinery. Regional efforts have spun off that offer increased spatial resolution to better resolve relevant processes. Emerging foci of ECCO are on a global sea level changes, in particular contributions from polar ice sheets, and the increased use of biogeochemical and ecosystem data to constrain global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Challenges in the coming decade include provision of uncertainties, informing observing system design, globally increased resolution, and moving toward a coupled Earth system estimation with consistent momentum, heat and freshwater fluxes between the ocean, atmosphere, cryosphere and land.
ArticleImpact of near-inertial waves on vertical mixing and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean(American Geophysical Union, 2019-06-17) Song, Hajoon ; Marshall, John C. ; Campin, Jean-Michel ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.We report the significant impact of near‐inertial waves (NIWs) on vertical mixing and air‐sea carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in the Southern Ocean using a biogeochemical model coupled to an eddy‐rich ocean circulation model. The effects of high‐frequency processes are quantified by comparing the fully coupled solution (ONLINE) to two offline simulations based on 5‐day‐averaged output of the ONLINE simulation: one that uses vertical mixing archived from the ONLINE model (CTRL) and another in which vertical mixing is recomputed from the 5‐day average hydrodynamic fields (5dAVG). In this latter simulation, processes with temporal variabilities of a few days including NIWs are excluded in the biogeochemical simulation. Suppression of these processes reduces vertical shear and vertical mixing in the upper ocean, leading to decreased supply of carbon‐rich water from below, less CO2 outgassing in austral winter, and more uptake in summer. The net change amounts up to one third of the seasonal variability in Southern Ocean CO2 flux. Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of resolving high‐frequency processes such as NIWs to better estimate the carbon cycle in numerical model simulations.