Noble Anna

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  • Book chapter
    Advances in genome editing tools
    (Taylor & Francis, 2022-04-19) Horb, Marko E. ; Abu-Daya, Anita ; Wlizla, Marcin ; Noble, Anna ; Guille, Matthew
    This book focuses on the amphibian, Xenopus, one of the most commonly used model animals in the biological sciences. Over the past 50 years, the use of Xenopus has made possible many fundamental contributions to our knowledge in cell biology, developmental biology, molecular biology, and neurobiology. In recent years, with the completion of the genome sequence of the main two species and the application of genome editing techniques, Xenopus has emerged as a powerful system to study fundamental disease mechanisms and test treatment possibilities. Xenopus has proven an essential vertebrate model system for understanding fundamental cell and developmental biological mechanisms, for applying fundamental knowledge to pathological processes, for deciphering the function of human disease genes, and for understanding genome evolution. Key Features Provides historical context of the contributions of the model system Includes contributions from an international team of leading scholars Presents topics spanning cell biology, developmental biology, genomics, and disease model Describes recent experimental advances Incorporates richly illustrated diagrams and color images
  • Article
    An optimized method for cryogenic storage of Xenopus sperm to maximise the effectiveness of research using genetically altered frogs
    (Elsevier, 2017-01-17) Pearl, Esther J. ; Morrow, Sean ; Noble, Anna ; Lerebours, Adelaide ; Horb, Marko E. ; Guille, Matthew
    Cryogenic storage of sperm from genetically altered Xenopus improves cost effectiveness and animal welfare associated with their use in research; currently it is routine for X. tropicalis but not reliable for X. laevis. Here we compare directly the three published protocols for Xenopus sperm freeze-thaw and determine whether sperm storage temperature, method of testes maceration and delays in the freezing protocols affect successful fertilisation and embryo development in X. laevis. We conclude that the protocol is robust and that the variability observed in fertilisation rates is due to differences between individuals. We show that the embryos made from the frozen-thawed sperm are normal and that the adults they develop into are reproductively indistinguishable from others in the colony. This opens the way for using cryopreserved sperm to distribute dominant genetically altered (GA) lines, potentially saving travel-induced stress to the male frogs, reducing their numbers used and making Xenopus experiments more cost effective.
  • Article
    Inbreeding ratio and genetic relationships among strains of the Western clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis
    (Public Library of Science, 2015-07-29) Igawa, Takeshi ; Watanabe, Ai ; Suzuki, Atsushi ; Kashiwagi, Akihiko ; Kashiwagi, Keiko ; Noble, Anna ; Guille, Matthew ; Simpson, David E. ; Horb, Marko E. ; Fujii, Tamotsu ; Sumida, Masayuki
    The Western clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis, is a highly promising model amphibian, especially in developmental and physiological research, and as a tool for understanding disease. It was originally found in the West African rainforest belt, and was introduced to the research community in the 1990s. The major strains thus far known include the Nigerian and Ivory Coast strains. However, due to its short history as an experimental animal, the genetic relationship among the various strains has not yet been clarified, and establishment of inbred strains has not yet been achieved. Since 2003 the Institute for Amphibian Biology (IAB), Hiroshima University has maintained stocks of multiple X. tropicalis strains and conducted consecutive breeding as part of the National BioResource Project. In the present study we investigated the inbreeding ratio and genetic relationship of four inbred strains at IAB, as well as stocks from other institutions, using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and mitochondrial haplotypes. Our results show successive reduction of heterozygosity in the genome of the IAB inbred strains. The Ivory Coast strains clearly differed from the Nigerian strains genetically, and three subgroups were identified within both the Nigerian and Ivory Coast strains. It is noteworthy that the Ivory Coast strains have an evolutionary divergent genetic background. Our results serve as a guide for the most effective use of X. tropicalis strains, and the long-term maintenance of multiple strains will contribute to further research efforts.
  • Article
    Xenopus resources: Transgenic, inbred and mutant animals, training opportunities, and web-based support.
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-04-25) Horb, Marko E. ; Wlizla, Marcin ; Abu-Daya, Anita ; McNamara, Sean ; Gajdasik, Dominika ; Igawa, Takeshi ; Suzuki, Atsushi ; Ogino, Hajime ; Noble, Anna ; Robert, Jacques ; James-Zorn, Christina ; Guille, Matthew ; Nicolas, Morgane ; Lafond, Thomas ; Boujard, Daniel ; Audic, Yann ; Guillet, Brigitte ; Centre de Ressource Biologique Xenope team in France
    Two species of the clawed frog family, Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis, are widely used as tools to investigate both normal and disease-state biochemistry, genetics, cell biology, and developmental biology. To support both frog specialist and non-specialist scientists needing access to these models for their research, a number of centralized resources exist around the world. These include centers that hold live and frozen stocks of transgenic, inbred and mutant animals and centers that hold molecular resources. This infrastructure is supported by a model organism database. Here, we describe much of this infrastructure and encourage the community to make the best use of it and to guide the resource centers in developing new lines and libraries.