Clark David B.

No Thumbnail Available
Last Name
First Name
David B.

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Article
    Surfzone to inner-shelf exchange estimated from dye tracer balances
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-09-19) Hally-Rosendahl, Kai ; Feddersen, Falk ; Clark, David B. ; Guza, R. T.
    Surfzone and inner-shelf tracer dispersion are observed at an approximately alongshore-uniform beach. Fluorescent Rhodamine WT dye, released near the shoreline continuously for 6.5 h, is advected alongshore by breaking-wave- and wind-driven currents, and ejected offshore from the surfzone to the inner-shelf by transient rip currents. Novel aerial-based multispectral dye concentration images and in situ measurements of dye, waves, and currents provide tracer transport and dilution observations spanning about 350 m cross-shore and 3 km alongshore. Downstream dilution of near-shoreline dye follows power law decay with exponent −0.33, implying that a tenfold increase in alongshore distance reduces the concentration about 50%. Coupled surfzone and inner-shelf dye mass balances close, and in 5 h, roughly half of the surfzone-released dye is transported offshore to the inner-shelf. Observed cross-shore transports are parameterized well ( inline image, best fit slope inline image) using a bulk exchange velocity and mean surfzone to inner-shelf dye concentration difference. The best fit cross-shore exchange velocity inline image is similar to a temperature-derived exchange velocity on another day with similar wave conditions. The inline image magnitude and observed inner-shelf dye length scales, time scales, and vertical structure indicate the dominance of transient rip currents in surfzone to inner-shelf cross-shore exchange during moderate waves at this alongshore-uniform beach.
  • Article
    Aerial imaging of fluorescent dye in the near shore
    (American Meteorological Society, 2014-06) Clark, David B. ; Lenain, Luc ; Feddersen, Falk ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Guza, R. T.
    Aerial images are used to quantify the concentration of fluorescent Rhodamine water tracing (WT) dye in turbid and optically deep water. Tracer releases near the shoreline of an ocean beach and near a tidal inlet were observed with a two-band multispectral camera and a pushbroom hyperspectral imager, respectively. The aerial observations are compared with near-surface in situ measurements. The ratio of upwelling radiance near the Rhodamine WT excitation and emission peaks varies linearly with the in situ dye concentrations for concentrations <20 ppb (r2 = 0.70 and r2 = 0.85–0.88 at the beach and inlet, respectively). The linear relationship allows for relative tracer concentration estimates without in situ calibration. The O(1 m) image pixels resolve complex flow structures on the inner shelf that transport and mix tracer.
  • Article
    Vorticity generation by short-crested wave breaking
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-12-21) Clark, David B. ; Elgar, Steve ; Raubenheimer, Britt
    Eddies and vortices associated with breaking waves rapidly disperse pollution, nutrients, and terrestrial material along the coast. Although theory and numerical models suggest that vorticity is generated near the ends of a breaking wave crest, this hypothesis has not been tested in the field. Here we report the first observations of wave-generated vertical vorticity (e.g., horizontal eddies), and find that individual short-crested breaking waves generate significant vorticity [O(0.01 s−1)] in the surfzone. Left- and right-handed wave ends generate vorticity of opposite sign, consistent with theory. In contrast to theory, the observed vorticity also increases inside the breaking crest, possibly owing to onshore advection of vorticity generated at previous stages of breaking or from the shape of the breaking region. Short-crested breaking transferred energy from incident waves to lower frequency rotational motions that are a primary mechanism for dispersion near the shoreline.
  • Article
    Modeling surf zone tracer plumes : 2. Transport and dispersion
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-11-18) Clark, David B. ; Feddersen, Falk ; Guza, R. T.
    Five surf zone dye tracer releases from the HB06 experiment are simulated with a tracer advection diffusion model coupled to a Boussinesq surf zone model (funwaveC). Model tracer is transported and stirred by currents and eddies and diffused with a breaking wave eddy diffusivity, set equal to the breaking wave eddy viscosity, and a small (0.01 m2 s−1) background diffusivity. Observed and modeled alongshore parallel tracer plumes, transported by the wave driven alongshore current, have qualitatively similar cross-shore structures. Although the model skill for mean tracer concentration is variable (from negative to 0.73) depending upon release, cross-shore integrated tracer moments (normalized by the cross-shore tracer integral) have consistently high skills (≈0.9). Modeled and observed bulk surf zone cross-shore diffusivity estimates are also similar, with 0.72 squared correlation and skill of 0.4. Similar to the observations, the model bulk (absolute) cross-shore diffusivity is consistent with a mixing length parameterization based on low-frequency (0.001–0.03 Hz) eddies. The model absolute cross-shore dispersion is dominated by stirring from surf zone eddies and does not depend upon the presence of the breaking wave eddy diffusivity. Given only the bathymetry and incident wave field, the coupled Boussinesq-tracer model qualitatively reproduces the observed cross-shore absolute tracer dispersion, suggesting that the model can be used to study surf zone tracer dispersion mechanisms.
  • Article
    Extremely low frequency (0.1 to 1.0 mHz) surf zone currents.
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-01-02) Elgar, Steve ; Raubenheimer, Britt ; Clark, David B. ; Moulton, Melissa
    Low‐frequency surf zone eddies disperse material between the shoreline and the continental shelf, and velocity fluctuations with frequencies as low as a few mHz have been observed previously on several beaches. Here spectral estimates of surf zone currents are extended to an order of magnitude lower frequency, resolving an extremely low frequency peak of approximately 0.5 mHz that is observed for a range of beaches and wave conditions. The magnitude of the 0.5‐mHz peak increases with increasing wave energy and with spatial inhomogeneity of bathymetry or currents. The 0.5‐mHz peak may indicate the frequency for which nonlinear energy transfers from higher‐frequency, smaller‐scale motions are balanced by dissipative processes and thus may be the low‐frequency limit of the hypothesized 2‐D cascade of energy from breaking waves to lower frequency motions.
  • Article
    Modeling surf zone tracer plumes : 1. Waves, mean currents, and low-frequency eddies
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-11-18) Feddersen, Falk ; Clark, David B. ; Guza, R. T.
    A model that accurately simulates surf zone waves, mean currents, and low-frequency eddies is required to diagnose the mechanisms of surf zone tracer transport and dispersion. In this paper, a wave-resolving time-dependent Boussinesq model is compared with waves and currents observed during five surf zone dye release experiments. In a companion paper, Clark et al. (2011) compare a coupled tracer model to the dye plume observations. The Boussinesq model uses observed bathymetry and incident random, directionally spread waves. For all five releases, the model generally reproduces the observed cross-shore evolution of significant wave height, mean wave angle, bulk directional spread, mean alongshore current, and the frequency-dependent sea surface elevation spectra and directional moments. The largest errors are near the shoreline where the bathymetry is most uncertain. The model also reproduces the observed cross-shore structure of rotational velocities in the infragravity (0.004 < f < 0.03 Hz) and very low frequency (VLF) (0.001 < f < 0.004 Hz) bands, although the modeled VLF energy is 2–3 times too large. Similar to the observations, the dominant contributions to the modeled eddy-induced momentum flux are in the VLF band. These eddies are elliptical near the shoreline and circular in the mid surf zone. The model-data agreement for sea swell waves, low-frequency eddies, and mean currents suggests that the model is appropriate for simulating surf zone tracer transport and dispersion.