Guza R. T.

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R. T.

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Now showing 1 - 18 of 18
  • Article
    Observations of swash zone velocities : a note on friction coefficients
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-01-30) Raubenheimer, Britt ; Elgar, Steve ; Guza, R. T.
    Vertical flow structure and turbulent dissipation in the swash zone are estimated using cross-shore fluid velocities observed on a low-sloped, fine-grained sandy beach [Raubenheimer, 2002] with two stacks of three current meters located about 2, 5, and 8 cm above the bed. The observations are consistent with an approximately logarithmic vertical decay of wave orbital velocities within 5 cm of the bed. The associated friction coefficients are similar in both the uprush and downrush, as in previous laboratory results. Turbulent dissipation rates estimated from velocity spectra increase with decreasing water depth from O(400 cm2/s3) in the inner surf zone to O(1000 cm2/s3) in the swash zone. Friction coefficients in the swash interior estimated with the logarithmic model and independently estimated by assuming that turbulent dissipation is balanced by production from vertical shear of the local mean flow and from wave breaking are between 0.02 and 0.06. These values are similar to the range of friction coefficients (0.02–0.05) recently estimated on impermeable, rough, nonerodible laboratory beaches and to the range of friction coefficients (0.01–0.03) previously estimated from field observations of the motion of the shoreward edge of the swash (run-up).
  • Article
    Model-data comparisons of shear waves in the nearshore
    (American Geophysical Union, 2005-05-27) Noyes, T. James ; Guza, R. T. ; Feddersen, Falk ; Elgar, Steve ; Herbers, T. H. C.
    Observations of shear waves, alongshore propagating meanders of the mean alongshore current with periods of a few minutes and alongshore wavelengths of a few hundred meters, are compared with model predictions based on numerical solutions of the nonlinear shallow water equations. The model (after Özkan-Haller and Kirby (1999)) assumes alongshore homogeneity and temporally steady wave forcing and neglects wave-current interactions, eddy mixing, and spatial variation of the (nonlinear) bottom drag coefficient. Although the shapes of observed and modeled shear wave velocity spectra differ, and root-mean-square velocity fluctuations agree only to within a factor of about 3, aspects of the cross-shore structure of the observed (∼0.5–1.0 m above the seafloor) and modeled (vertically integrated) shear waves are qualitatively similar. Within the surf zone, where the mean alongshore current (V) is strong and shear waves are energetic, observed and modeled shear wave alongshore phase speeds agree and are close to both V and C lin (the phase speed of linearly unstable modes) consistent with previous results. Farther offshore, where V is weak and observed and modeled shear wave energy levels decay rapidly, modeled and observed C diverge from C lin and are close to the weak alongshore current V. The simulations suggest that the alongshore advection of eddies shed from the strong, sheared flow closer to shore may contribute to the offshore decrease in shear wave phase speeds. Similar to the observations, the modeled cross- and alongshore shear wave velocity fluctuations have approximately equal magnitude, and the modeled vorticity changes sign across the surf zone.
  • Preprint
    Estimating nearshore bedform amplitudes with altimeters
    ( 2005-01-14) Gallagher, E. L. ; Elgar, Steve ; Guza, R. T. ; Thornton, Ed B.
    Estimates of the heights of large (0.1-0.4 m heights and 1-10 m horizontal lengths) migrating bedforms on a sandy beach made with fixed, single-point altimeters are similar to heights estimated from profiles across the bedforms made with altimeters mounted on an amphibious vehicle that traversed the surf zone. Unlike many profiling systems, the robust, fixed altimeters can measure bedforms in bubbly, sediment-laden surfzone waters nearly continuously, including during storms, thus allowing investigation of the relationships between bedform heights and near-bottom velocities to be extended to a wide range of wave conditions. The fixed-altimeter observations of migrating bedforms suggest a sandy surfzone seafloor is not always smooth during energetic conditions with strong mean currents and large wave-orbital velocities.
  • Article
    Surfzone to inner-shelf exchange estimated from dye tracer balances
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-09-19) Hally-Rosendahl, Kai ; Feddersen, Falk ; Clark, David B. ; Guza, R. T.
    Surfzone and inner-shelf tracer dispersion are observed at an approximately alongshore-uniform beach. Fluorescent Rhodamine WT dye, released near the shoreline continuously for 6.5 h, is advected alongshore by breaking-wave- and wind-driven currents, and ejected offshore from the surfzone to the inner-shelf by transient rip currents. Novel aerial-based multispectral dye concentration images and in situ measurements of dye, waves, and currents provide tracer transport and dilution observations spanning about 350 m cross-shore and 3 km alongshore. Downstream dilution of near-shoreline dye follows power law decay with exponent −0.33, implying that a tenfold increase in alongshore distance reduces the concentration about 50%. Coupled surfzone and inner-shelf dye mass balances close, and in 5 h, roughly half of the surfzone-released dye is transported offshore to the inner-shelf. Observed cross-shore transports are parameterized well ( inline image, best fit slope inline image) using a bulk exchange velocity and mean surfzone to inner-shelf dye concentration difference. The best fit cross-shore exchange velocity inline image is similar to a temperature-derived exchange velocity on another day with similar wave conditions. The inline image magnitude and observed inner-shelf dye length scales, time scales, and vertical structure indicate the dominance of transient rip currents in surfzone to inner-shelf cross-shore exchange during moderate waves at this alongshore-uniform beach.
  • Article
    Aerial imaging of fluorescent dye in the near shore
    (American Meteorological Society, 2014-06) Clark, David B. ; Lenain, Luc ; Feddersen, Falk ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Guza, R. T.
    Aerial images are used to quantify the concentration of fluorescent Rhodamine water tracing (WT) dye in turbid and optically deep water. Tracer releases near the shoreline of an ocean beach and near a tidal inlet were observed with a two-band multispectral camera and a pushbroom hyperspectral imager, respectively. The aerial observations are compared with near-surface in situ measurements. The ratio of upwelling radiance near the Rhodamine WT excitation and emission peaks varies linearly with the in situ dye concentrations for concentrations <20 ppb (r2 = 0.70 and r2 = 0.85–0.88 at the beach and inlet, respectively). The linear relationship allows for relative tracer concentration estimates without in situ calibration. The O(1 m) image pixels resolve complex flow structures on the inner shelf that transport and mix tracer.
  • Preprint
    Testing and calibrating parametric wave transformation models on natural beaches
    ( 2007-10-04) Apotsos, Alex ; Raubenheimer, Britt ; Elgar, Steve ; Guza, R. T.
    To provide coastal engineers and scientists with a detailed inter-comparison of widely used parametric wave transformation models, several models are tested and calibrated with extensive observations from 6 field experiments on barred and unbarred beaches. Using previously calibrated (“default”) values of a free parameter γ, all models predict the observations reasonably well (median root-mean-square wave height errors are between 10% and 20%) at all field sites. Model errors can be reduced by roughly 50% by tuning γ for each data record. No tuned or default model provides the best predictions for all data records or at all experiments. Tuned γ differ for the different models and experiments, but in all cases γ increases as the hyperbolic tangent of the deep-water wave height, Ho. Data from 2 experiments are used to estimate empirical, universal curves for γ based on Ho. Using the new parameterization, all models have similar accuracy, and usually show increased skill relative to using default γ.
  • Article
    Wave-driven setup and alongshore flows observed onshore of a submarine canyon
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-07-19) Apotsos, Alex ; Raubenheimer, Britt ; Elgar, Steve ; Guza, R. T.
    The effect of alongshore variations in the incident wavefield on wave-driven setup and on alongshore flows in the surfzone is investigated using observations collected onshore of a submarine canyon. Wave heights and radiation stresses at the outer edge of the surfzone (water depth ≈2.5 m) varied by up to a factor of 4 and 16, respectively, over a 450 m alongshore distance, resulting in setup variations as large as 0.1 m along the shoreline (water depth ≈0.3 m). Even with this strong alongshore variability, wave-driven setup was dominated by the cross-shore gradient of the wave radiation stress, and setup observed in the surfzone is predicted well by a one-dimensional cross-shore momentum balance. Both cross-shore radiation stress gradients and alongshore setup gradients contributed to the alongshore flows observed in the inner surfzone when alongshore gradients in offshore wave heights were large, and a simplified alongshore momentum balance suggests that the large [O(1 kg/(s2 m)] observed setup-induced pressure gradients can drive strong [O(1 m/s)] alongshore currents.
  • Article
    Modeling surf zone tracer plumes : 2. Transport and dispersion
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-11-18) Clark, David B. ; Feddersen, Falk ; Guza, R. T.
    Five surf zone dye tracer releases from the HB06 experiment are simulated with a tracer advection diffusion model coupled to a Boussinesq surf zone model (funwaveC). Model tracer is transported and stirred by currents and eddies and diffused with a breaking wave eddy diffusivity, set equal to the breaking wave eddy viscosity, and a small (0.01 m2 s−1) background diffusivity. Observed and modeled alongshore parallel tracer plumes, transported by the wave driven alongshore current, have qualitatively similar cross-shore structures. Although the model skill for mean tracer concentration is variable (from negative to 0.73) depending upon release, cross-shore integrated tracer moments (normalized by the cross-shore tracer integral) have consistently high skills (≈0.9). Modeled and observed bulk surf zone cross-shore diffusivity estimates are also similar, with 0.72 squared correlation and skill of 0.4. Similar to the observations, the model bulk (absolute) cross-shore diffusivity is consistent with a mixing length parameterization based on low-frequency (0.001–0.03 Hz) eddies. The model absolute cross-shore dispersion is dominated by stirring from surf zone eddies and does not depend upon the presence of the breaking wave eddy diffusivity. Given only the bathymetry and incident wave field, the coupled Boussinesq-tracer model qualitatively reproduces the observed cross-shore absolute tracer dispersion, suggesting that the model can be used to study surf zone tracer dispersion mechanisms.
  • Article
    Tidal modulation of infragravity waves via nonlinear energy losses in the surfzone
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-03-01) Thomson, James M. ; Elgar, Steve ; Raubenheimer, Britt ; Herbers, T. H. C. ; Guza, R. T.
    The strong tidal modulation of infragravity (200 to 20 s period) waves observed on the southern California shelf is shown to be the result of nonlinear transfers of energy from these low-frequency long waves to higher-frequency motions. The energy loss occurs in the surfzone, and is stronger as waves propagate over the convex low-tide beach profile than over the concave high-tide profile, resulting in a tidal modulation of seaward-radiated infragravity energy. Although previous studies have attributed infragravity energy losses in the surfzone to bottom drag and turbulence, theoretical estimates using both observations and numerical simulations suggest nonlinear transfers dominate. The observed beach profiles and energy transfers are similar along several km of the southern California coast, providing a mechanism for the tidal modulation of infragravity waves observed in bottom-pressure and seismic records on the continental shelf and in the deep ocean.
  • Article
    Modeling surf zone tracer plumes : 1. Waves, mean currents, and low-frequency eddies
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-11-18) Feddersen, Falk ; Clark, David B. ; Guza, R. T.
    A model that accurately simulates surf zone waves, mean currents, and low-frequency eddies is required to diagnose the mechanisms of surf zone tracer transport and dispersion. In this paper, a wave-resolving time-dependent Boussinesq model is compared with waves and currents observed during five surf zone dye release experiments. In a companion paper, Clark et al. (2011) compare a coupled tracer model to the dye plume observations. The Boussinesq model uses observed bathymetry and incident random, directionally spread waves. For all five releases, the model generally reproduces the observed cross-shore evolution of significant wave height, mean wave angle, bulk directional spread, mean alongshore current, and the frequency-dependent sea surface elevation spectra and directional moments. The largest errors are near the shoreline where the bathymetry is most uncertain. The model also reproduces the observed cross-shore structure of rotational velocities in the infragravity (0.004 < f < 0.03 Hz) and very low frequency (VLF) (0.001 < f < 0.004 Hz) bands, although the modeled VLF energy is 2–3 times too large. Similar to the observations, the dominant contributions to the modeled eddy-induced momentum flux are in the VLF band. These eddies are elliptical near the shoreline and circular in the mid surf zone. The model-data agreement for sea swell waves, low-frequency eddies, and mean currents suggests that the model is appropriate for simulating surf zone tracer transport and dispersion.
  • Article
    Nonlinear generation and loss of infragravity wave energy
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-12-08) Henderson, Stephen M. ; Guza, R. T. ; Elgar, Steve ; Herbers, T. H. C. ; Bowen, A. J.
    Nonlinear energy transfers with sea and swell (frequencies 0.05–0.40 Hz) were responsible for much of the generation and loss of infragravity wave energy (frequencies 0.005–0.050 Hz) observed under moderate- and low-energy conditions on a natural beach. Cases with energetic shear waves were excluded, and mean currents, a likely shear wave energy source, were neglected. Within 150 m of the shore, estimated nonlinear energy transfers to (or from) the infragravity band roughly balanced the divergence (or convergence) of the infragravity energy flux, consistent with a conservative energy equation. Addition of significant dissipation (requiring a bottom drag coefficient exceeding about 10−2) degraded the energy balance.
  • Article
    Field observations of shear waves in the surf zone
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-01-31) Noyes, T. James ; Guza, R. T. ; Elgar, Steve ; Herbers, T. H. C.
    Alongshore propagating meanders of the mean alongshore current in the surf zone called shear waves have periods of a few minutes and wavelengths of a few hundred meters. Here shear wave properties are estimated with arrays of current meters deployed for 4 months within 300 m of the shoreline of a sandy beach. Shear wave velocity fluctuations are approximately horizontally isotropic, with root mean square values between 10 and 40% of the mean (3-hour-averaged) alongshore current V. Cross-shore variations of the time-averaged shear wave momentum flux are consistent with shear wave energy generation close to shore where the breaking wave-driven mean alongshore current V and current shear Vx are strong and with shear wave energy dissipation and transfer back to the mean flow farther offshore where V and Vx are weak. In case studies where V is a narrow jet near the shoreline the observed strong decay of shear wave energy levels seaward of the jet, and the cross-shore and alongshore structure of shear waves within the jet, are similar to predictions based on the linearly unstable modes of the observed V. Shear wave energy levels also are high in a marginally unstable case with a strong, but weakly sheared, V.
  • Article
    Refraction of surface gravity waves by shear waves
    (American Meteorological Society, 2006-04) Henderson, Stephen M. ; Guza, R. T. ; Elgar, Steve ; Herbers, T. H. C.
    Previous field observations indicate that the directional spread of swell-frequency (nominally 0.1 Hz) surface gravity waves increases during shoreward propagation across the surf zone. This directional broadening contrasts with the narrowing observed seaward of the surf zone and predicted by Snell’s law for bathymetric refraction. Field-observed broadening was predicted by a new model for refraction of swell by lower-frequency (nominally 0.01 Hz) current and elevation fluctuations. The observations and the model suggest that refraction by the cross-shore currents of energetic shear waves contributed substantially to the observed broadening.
  • Preprint
    Wave-induced sediment transport and onshore sandbar migration
    ( 2006-04-06) Hsu, Tian-Jian ; Elgar, Steve ; Guza, R. T.
    The 25-m onshore migration of a nearshore sandbar observed over a 5-day period near Duck, NC is simulated with a simplified, computationally efficient, wave-resolving singlephase model. The modeled sediment transport is assumed to occur close to the seabed and to be in phase with the bottom stress. Neglected intergranular stresses and fluid-granular interactions, likely important in concentrated flow, are compensated for with an elevated (relative to that appropriate for a clear fluid) model roughness height that gives the best fit to the observed bar migration. Model results suggest that when mean-current-induced transport is small, wave-induced transport leads to the observed onshore bar migration. Based on the results from the simplified phase-resolving model, a wave-averaged, energetics-type model (e.g., only moments of the near-bottom velocity field are required) with different friction factors for oscillatory and mean flows is developed that also predicts the observed bar migration. Although the assumptions underlying the models differ, the similarity of model results precludes determination of the dominant mechanisms of sediment transport during onshore bar migration.
  • Article
    Episodic vertical nutrient fluxes and nearshore phytoplankton blooms in Southern California
    (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2012-11) Omand, Melissa M. ; Feddersen, Falk ; Guza, R. T. ; Franks, Peter J. S.
    Three distinct phytoplankton blooms lasting 4–9 d were observed in approximately 15-m water depth near Huntington Beach, California, between June and October of 2006. Each bloom was preceded by a vertical NO3 flux event 6–10 d earlier. NO3 concentrations were estimated using a temperature proxy that was verified by comparison with the limited NO3 observations. The lower–water-column vertical NO3 flux from vertical advection was inferred from observed vertical isotherm displacement. Turbulent vertical eddy diffusivity was parameterized based on the observed background (< 0.3 cycles h−1) stratification and vertical shear in the horizontal currents. The first vertical nitrate flux event in June contained both advective and turbulent fluxes, whereas the later two events were primarily turbulent, driven by shear in the lower part of the water column. The correlation between the NO3 flux and the observed chlorophyll a (Chl a) was maximum (r2 = 0.40) with an 8-d lag. A simple nitrate–phytoplankton model using a linear uptake function and driven with the NO3 flux captured the timing, magnitude, and duration of the three Chl a blooms (skill = 0.61) using optimal net growth rate parameters that were within the expected range. Vertical and horizontal advection of Chl a past the measurement site were too small to explain the observed Chl a increases during the blooms. The vertical NO3 flux was a primary control on the growth events, and estimation of both the advective (upwelled) and turbulent fluxes is necessary to best predict these episodic blooms.
  • Article
    Effects of wave rollers and bottom stress on wave setup
    (American Geophysical Union, 2007-02-03) Apotsos, Alex ; Raubenheimer, Britt ; Elgar, Steve ; Guza, R. T. ; Smith, Jerry A.
    Setup, the increase in the mean water level associated with breaking waves, observed between the shoreline and about 6-m water depth on an ocean beach is predicted well by a model that includes the effects of wave rollers and the bottom stress owing to the mean flow. Over the 90-day observational period, the measured and modeled setup are correlated (squared correlation above 0.59), and agree within about 30%. Although rollers may affect setup significantly on beaches with large amplitude (several meters high) sandbars and may be important in predicting the details of the cross-shore profile of setup, for the data discussed here, rollers have only a small effect on the amount of setup. Conversely, bottom stress (calculated using eddy viscosity and undertow formulations based on the surface dissipation, and assuming that the eddy viscosity is uniform throughout the water column) significantly affects setup predictions. Neglecting bottom stress results in underprediction of the observed setup in all water depths, with maximum underprediction near the shoreline where the observed setup is largest.
  • Article
    Observations and modeling of a tidal inlet dye tracer plume
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-10-24) Feddersen, Falk ; Olabarrieta, Maitane ; Guza, R. T. ; Winters, Dylan ; Raubenheimer, Britt ; Elgar, Steve
    A 9 km long tracer plume was created by continuously releasing Rhodamine WT dye for 2.2 h during ebb tide within the southern edge of the main tidal channel at New River Inlet, NC on 7 May 2012, with highly obliquely incident waves and alongshore winds. Over 6 h from release, COAWST (coupled ROMS and SWAN, including wave, wind, and tidal forcing) modeled dye compares well with (aerial hyperspectral and in situ) observed dye concentration. Dye first was transported rapidly seaward along the main channel and partially advected across the ebb-tidal shoal until reaching the offshore edge of the shoal. Dye did not eject offshore in an ebb-tidal jet because the obliquely incident breaking waves retarded the inlet-mouth ebb-tidal flow and forced currents along the ebb shoal. The dye plume largely was confined to <4 m depth. Dye was then transported downcoast in the narrow (few 100 m wide) surfzone of the beach bordering the inlet at 0.3 inline image driven by wave breaking. Over 6 h, the dye plume is not significantly affected by buoyancy. Observed dye mass balances close indicating all released dye is accounted for. Modeled and observed dye behaviors are qualitatively similar. The model simulates well the evolution of the dye center of mass, lateral spreading, surface area, and maximum concentration, as well as regional (“inlet” and “ocean”) dye mass balances. This indicates that the model represents well the dynamics of the ebb-tidal dye plume. Details of the dye transport pathways across the ebb shoal are modeled poorly perhaps owing to low-resolution and smoothed model bathymetry. Wave forcing effects have a large impact on the dye transport.
  • Article
    Refraction and reflection of infragravity waves near submarine canyons
    (American Geophysical Union, 2007-10-10) Thomson, James M. ; Elgar, Steve ; Herbers, T. H. C. ; Raubenheimer, Britt ; Guza, R. T.
    The propagation of infragravity waves (ocean surface waves with periods from 20 to 200 s) over complex inner shelf (water depths from about 3 to 50 m) bathymetry is investigated with field observations from the southern California coast. A wave-ray-path-based model is used to describe radiation from adjacent beaches, refraction over slopes (smooth changes in bathymetry), and partial reflection from submarine canyons (sharp changes in bathymetry). In both the field observations and the model simulations the importance of the canyons depends on the directional spectrum of the infragravity wave field radiating from the shoreline and on the distance from the canyons. Averaged over the wide range of conditions observed, a refraction-only model has reduced skill near the abrupt bathymetry, whereas a combined refraction and reflection model accurately describes the distribution of infragravity wave energy on the inner shelf, including the localized effects of steep-walled submarine canyons.