Edwards Katrina J.

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Katrina J.

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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Article
    Spatiotemporal distribution of marine magnetotactic bacteria in a aeasonally stratified coastal salt pond
    (American Society for Microbiology, 2004-10) Simmons, Sheri L. ; Sievert, Stefan M. ; Frankel, R. B. ; Bazylinski, D. A. ; Edwards, Katrina J.
    The occurrence and distribution of magnetotactic bacteria (MB) were studied as a function of the physical and chemical conditions in meromictic Salt Pond, Falmouth, Mass., throughout summer 2002. Three dominant MB morphotypes were observed to occur within the chemocline. Small microaerophilic magnetite-producing cocci were present at the top of the chemocline, while a greigite-producing packet-forming bacterium occurred at the base of the chemocline. The distributions of these groups displayed sharp changes in abundance over small length scales within the water column as well as strong seasonal fluctuations in population abundance. We identified a novel, greigite-producing rod in the sulfidic hypolimnion that was present in relatively constant abundance over the course of the season. This rod is the first MB that appears to belong to the {gamma}-Proteobacteria, which may suggest an iron- rather than sulfur-based respiratory metabolism. Its distribution and phylogenetic identity suggest that an alternative model for the ecological and physiological role of magnetotaxis is needed for greigite-producing MB.
  • Preprint
    Iron isotope fractionation in subterranean estuaries
    ( 2008-04-25) Rouxel, Olivier J. ; Sholkovitz, Edward R. ; Charette, Matthew A. ; Edwards, Katrina J.
    Dissolved Fe concentrations in subterranean estuaries, like their river-seawater counterparts, are strongly controlled by non-conservative behavior during mixing of groundwater and seawater in coastal aquifers. Previous studies at a subterranean estuary of Waquoit Bay on Cape Cod, USA demonstrate extensive precipitation of groundwater-borne dissolved ferrous iron and subsequent accumulation of iron oxides onto subsurface sands. Waquoit Bay is thus an excellent natural laboratory to assess the mechanisms of Fe-isotope fractionation in redoxstratified environments and determine potential Fe-isotope signatures of groundwater sources to coastal seawater. Here, we report Fe isotope compositions of iron-coated sands and porewaters beneath the intertidal zone of Waquoit Bay. The distribution of pore water Fe shows two distinct sources of Fe: one residing in the upward rising plume of Fe-rich groundwater and the second in the salt-wedge zone of pore water. The groundwater source has high Fe(II) concentration consistent with anoxic conditions and yield δ56Fe values between 0.3 and –1.3‰. In contrast, sediment porewaters occurring in the mixing zone of the subterranean estuary have very low δ56Fe values down to –5‰. These low δ56Fe values reflect Fe-redox cycling and result from the preferential retention of heavy Fe-isotopes onto newly formed Fe-oxyhydroxides. Analysis of Feoxides precipitated onto subsurface sands in two cores from the subterranean estuary revealed strong δ56Fe and Fe concentration gradients over less than 2m, yielding an overall range of δ56Fe values between –2 and 1.5‰. The relationship between Fe concentration and δ56Fe of Fe-rich sands can be modeled by the progressive precipitation of Fe-oxides along fluid flow through the subterranean estuary. These results demonstrate that large-scale Fe isotope fractionation (up to 5‰) can occur in subterranean estuaries, which could lead to coastal seawater characterized by very low δ56Fe values relative to river values.
  • Preprint
    Time-series analysis of two hydrothermal plumes at 9°50′N East Pacific Rise reveals distinct, heterogeneous bacterial populations
    ( 2011-12-05) Sylvan, Jason B. ; Pyenson, Benjamin C. ; Rouxel, Olivier J. ; German, Christopher R. ; Edwards, Katrina J.
    We deployed sediment traps adjacent to two active hydrothermal vents at 9°50’N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to assess variability in bacterial community structure associated with plume particles on the time scale of weeks to months, to determine if an endemic population of plume microbes exists, and to establish ecological relationships between bacterial populations and vent chemistry. Automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) indicated there are separate communities at the two different vents and temporal community variations between each vent. Correlation analysis between chemistry and microbiology indicated that shifts in the coarse particulate (>1 mm) Fe/(Fe+Mn+Al), Cu, V, Ca, Al, 232Th, and Ti as well as fine-grained particulate (<1 mm) Fe/(Fe+Mn+Al), Fe, Ca and Co are reflected in shifts in microbial populations. 16S rRNA clone libraries from each trap at three time points revealed a high percentage of Epsilonproteobacteria clones and hyperthermophilic Aquificae. There is a shift towards the end of the experiment to more Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, many of whom likely participate in Fe and S cycling. The particle attached plume environment is genetically distinct from the surrounding seawater. While work to date in hydrothermal environments has focused on determining the microbial communities on hydrothermal chimneys and the basaltic lavas that form the surrounding seafloor, little comparable data exists on the plume environment that physically and chemically connects them. By employing sediment traps for a time series approach to sampling, we show that bacterial community composition on plume particles changes on time scales much shorter than previously known.
  • Article
    Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1 the First Genome of a Marine Fe(II) Oxidizing Zetaproteobacterium
    (Public Library of Science, 2011-09-23) Singer, Esther ; Emerson, David ; Webb, Eric A. ; Barco, Roman A. ; Kuenen, J. Gijs ; Nelson, William C. ; Chan, Clara S. ; Comolli, Luis R. ; Ferriera, Steve ; Johnson, Justin ; Heidelberg, John F. ; Edwards, Katrina J.
    Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1 has provided the first genome of the recently discovered Zetaproteobacteria subdivision. Genome analysis reveals a complete TCA cycle, the ability to fix CO2, carbon-storage proteins and a sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The latter could facilitate the transport of carbohydrates across the cell membrane and possibly aid in stalk formation, a matrix composed of exopolymers and/or exopolysaccharides, which is used to store oxidized iron minerals outside the cell. Two-component signal transduction system genes, including histidine kinases, GGDEF domain genes, and response regulators containing CheY-like receivers, are abundant and widely distributed across the genome. Most of these are located in close proximity to genes required for cell division, phosphate uptake and transport, exopolymer and heavy metal secretion, flagellar biosynthesis and pilus assembly suggesting that these functions are highly regulated. Similar to many other motile, microaerophilic bacteria, genes encoding aerotaxis as well as antioxidant functionality (e.g., superoxide dismutases and peroxidases) are predicted to sense and respond to oxygen gradients, as would be required to maintain cellular redox balance in the specialized habitat where M. ferrooxydans resides. Comparative genomics with other Fe(II) oxidizing bacteria residing in freshwater and marine environments revealed similar content, synteny, and amino acid similarity of coding sequences potentially involved in Fe(II) oxidation, signal transduction and response regulation, oxygen sensation and detoxification, and heavy metal resistance. This study has provided novel insights into the molecular nature of Zetaproteobacteria.
  • Article
    Measuring the form of iron in hydrothermal plume particles
    (The Oceanography Society, 2012-03) Toner, Brandy M. ; Marcus, Matthew A. ; Edwards, Katrina J. ; Rouxel, Olivier J. ; German, Christopher R.
    The global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system is a 60,000 km submarine volcanic mountain range that crosses all of the major ocean basins on Earth. Along the MOR, subseafloor seawater circulation exchanges heat and elements between the oceanic crust and seawater. One of the elements released through this venting process is iron. The amount of iron released by hydrothermal venting to the ocean per year (called a flux) is similar in magnitude to that in global riverine runoff (Elderfield and Schultz, 1996). Until recently, measurements and modeling activities to understand the contribution of hydrothermal iron to the ocean budget have been largely neglected. It was thought that hydrothermal iron was removed completely from seawater by precipitation of iron-bearing minerals within plumes and then deposited at the seafloor close to vent sites. With this assumption in place, the contribution of hydrothermal fluxes to the ocean budget was considered negligible. Recent work, however, questions the validity of that assumption, and leads to what we call the "leaky vent" hypothesis. Our goal is to measure the forms of iron, known as speciation, present in hydrothermal plume particles to better understand the bioavailability, geochemical reactivity, and transport properties of hydrothermal iron in the ocean.
  • Article
    Isolation and characterization of novel psychrophilic, neutrophilic, Fe-oxidizing, chemolithoautotrophic α- and γ-proteobacteria from the deep sea
    (American Society for Microbiology, 2003-05) Edwards, Katrina J. ; Rogers, Daniel R. ; Wirsen, Carl O. ; McCollom, Thomas M.
    We report the isolation and physiological characterization of novel, psychrophilic, iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) from low-temperature weathering habitats in the vicinity of the Juan de Fuca deep-sea hydrothermal area. The FeOB were cultured from the surfaces of weathered rock and metalliferous sediments. They are capable of growth on a variety of natural and synthetic solid rock and mineral substrates, such as pyrite (FeS2), basalt glass (~10 wt% FeO), and siderite (FeCO3), as their sole energy source, as well as numerous aqueous Fe substrates. Growth temperature characteristics correspond to the in situ environmental conditions of sample origin; the FeOB grow optimally at 3 to 10°C and at generation times ranging from 57 to 74 h. They are obligate chemolithoautotrophs and grow optimally under microaerobic conditions in the presence of an oxygen gradient or anaerobically in the presence of nitrate. None of the strains are capable of using any organic or alternate inorganic substrates tested. The bacteria are phylogenetically diverse and have no close Fe-oxidizing or autotrophic relatives represented in pure culture. One group of isolates are γ-Proteobacteria most closely related to the heterotrophic bacterium Marinobacter aquaeolei (87 to 94% sequence similarity). A second group of isolates are α-Proteobacteria most closely related to the deep-sea heterotrophic bacterium Hyphomonas jannaschiana (81 to 89% sequence similarity). This study provides further evidence for the evolutionarily widespread capacity for Fe oxidation among bacteria and suggests that FeOB may play an unrecognized geomicrobiological role in rock weathering in the deep sea.
  • Preprint
    Evidence for microbial mediation of subseafloor nitrogen redox processes at Loihi Seamount, Hawaii
    ( 2016-10-24) Sylvan, Jason B. ; Wankel, Scott D. ; LaRowe, Douglas E. ; Charoenpong, Chawalit N. ; Huber, Julie A. ; Moyer, Craig L. ; Edwards, Katrina J.
    The role of nitrogen cycling in submarine hydrothermal systems is far less studied than that of other biologically reactive elements such as sulfur and iron. In order to address this knowledge gap, we investigated nitrogen redox processes at Loihi Seamount, Hawaii, using a combination of biogeochemical and isotopic measurements, bioenergetic calculations and analysis of the prokaryotic community composition in venting fluids sampled during four cruises in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013. Concentrations of NH4+ were positively correlated to dissolved Si and negatively correlated to NO3-+NO2-, while NO2- was not correlated to NO3-+NO2-, dissolved Si or NH4+. This is indicative of hydrothermal input of NH4+ and biological mediation influencing NO2- concentrations. The stable isotope ratios of NO3- (d15N and d18O) was elevated with respect to background seawater, with d18O values exhibiting larger changes than corresponding d15N values, reflecting the occurrence of both production and reduction of NO3- by an active microbial community. d15N-NH4+ values ranged from 0‰ to +16.7‰, suggesting fractionation during consumption and potentially N-fixation as well. Bioenergetic calculations reveal that several catabolic strategies involving the reduction of NO3- and NO2- coupled to sulfide and iron oxidation could provide energy to microbes in Loihi fluids, while 16S rRNA gene sequencing of Archaea and Bacteria in the fluids reveals groups known to participate in denitrification and N-fixation. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that microbes are mediating N-based redox processes in venting hydrothermal fluids at Loihi Seamount.
  • Article
    Ultra-diffuse hydrothermal venting supports Fe-oxidizing bacteria and massive umber deposition at 5000 m off Hawaii
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2011-05-05) Edwards, Katrina J. ; Glazer, Brian T. ; Rouxel, Olivier J. ; Bach, Wolfgang ; Emerson, David ; Toner, Brandy M. ; Chan, Clara S. ; Tebo, Bradley M. ; Staudigel, Hubert ; Moyer, Craig L.
    A novel hydrothermal field has been discovered at the base of Lōihi Seamount, Hawaii, at 5000 mbsl. Geochemical analyses demonstrate that ‘FeMO Deep’, while only 0.2 °C above ambient seawater temperature, derives from a distal, ultra-diffuse hydrothermal source. FeMO Deep is expressed as regional seafloor seepage of gelatinous iron- and silica-rich deposits, pooling between and over basalt pillows, in places over a meter thick. The system is capped by mm to cm thick hydrothermally derived iron-oxyhydroxide- and manganese-oxide-layered crusts. We use molecular analyses (16S rDNA-based) of extant communities combined with fluorescent in situ hybridizations to demonstrate that FeMO Deep deposits contain living iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria related to the recently isolated strain Mariprofundus ferroxydans. Bioenergetic calculations, based on in-situ electrochemical measurements and cell counts, indicate that reactions between iron and oxygen are important in supporting chemosynthesis in the mats, which we infer forms a trophic base of the mat ecosystem. We suggest that the biogenic FeMO Deep hydrothermal deposit represents a modern analog for one class of geological iron deposits known as ‘umbers’ (for example, Troodos ophilolites, Cyprus) because of striking similarities in size, setting and internal structures.
  • Preprint
    Integrated Fe- and S-isotope study of seafloor hydrothermal vents at East Pacific Rise 9–10°N
    ( 2008-03-06) Rouxel, Olivier J. ; Shanks, Wayne C. ; Bach, Wolfgang ; Edwards, Katrina J.
    In this study, we report on coupled Fe- and S-isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and sulfide deposits from the East Pacific Rise at 9-10°N to better constrain processes affecting Fe- isotope fractionation in hydrothermal environments. We aim to address three fundamental questions: (1) is there significant Fe isotope fractionation during sulfide precipitation? (2) Is there significant variability of Fe-isotope composition of the hydrothermal fluids reflecting sulfide precipitation in subsurface environments? (3) Are there any systematics between Fe- and S- isotopes in sulfide minerals? The results show that chalcopyrite, precipitating in the interior wall of a hydrothermal chimney displays a limited range of δ56Fe values and δ34S values, between –0.11 to –0.33‰ and 2.2 to 2.6‰ respectively. The δ56Fe values are, on average, slightly higher by 0.14‰ relative to coeval vent fluid composition while δ34S values suggest significant S-isotope fractionation (-0.6±0.2‰) during chalcopyrite precipitation. In contrast, systematically lower δ56Fe and δ34S values relative to hydrothermal fluids, by up to 0.91‰ and 2.0‰ respectively, are observed in pyrite and marcasite precipitating in the interior of active chimneys. These results suggest isotope disequilibrium in both Fe- and S-isotopes due to S-isotopic exchange between hydrothermal H2S and seawater SO42- followed by rapid formation of pyrite from FeS precursors, thus preserving the effects of a strong kinetic Fe-isotope fractionation during FeS precipitation. In contrast, δ56Fe and δ34S values of pyrite from inactive massive sulfides, which show evidence of extensive late-stage reworking, are essentially similar to the hydrothermal fluids. Multiple stages of remineralization of ancient chimney deposits at the seafloor appear to produce minimal Fe-isotope fractionation. Similar affects are indicated during subsurface sulfide precipitation as demonstrated by the lack of systematic differences between δ56Fe values in both high-temperature, Fe-rich black smokers and lower temperature, Fe-depleted vents.