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ArticleMulticarrier communication over underwater acoustic channels with nonuniform Doppler shifts(IEEE, 2008-04) Li, Baosheng ; Zhou, Shengli ; Stojanovic, Milica ; Freitag, Lee E. ; Willett, PeterUnderwater acoustic (UWA) channels are wideband in nature due to the small ratio of the carrier frequency to the signal bandwidth, which introduces frequency-dependent Doppler shifts. In this paper, we treat the channel as having a common Doppler scaling factor on all propagation paths, and propose a two-step approach to mitigating the Doppler effect: 1) nonuniform Doppler compensation via resampling that converts a "wideband" problem into a "narrowband" problem and 2) high-resolution uniform compensation of the residual Doppler. We focus on zero-padded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) to minimize the transmission power. Null subcarriers are used to facilitate Doppler compensation, and pilot subcarriers are used for channel estimation. The receiver is based on block-by-block processing, and does not rely on channel dependence across OFDM blocks; thus, it is suitable for fast-varying UWA channels. The data from two shallow-water experiments near Woods Hole, MA, are used to demonstrate the receiver performance. Excellent performance results are obtained even when the transmitter and the receiver are moving at a relative speed of up to 10 kn, at which the Doppler shifts are greater than the OFDM subcarrier spacing. These results suggest that OFDM is a viable option for high-rate communications over wideband UWA channels with nonuniform Doppler shifts.
ArticleSparse channel estimation for multicarrier underwater acoustic communication : from subspace methods to compressed sensing(IEEE, 2009-10-29) Berger, Christian R. ; Zhou, Shengli ; Preisig, James C. ; Willett, PeterIn this paper, we investigate various channel estimators that exploit channel sparsity in the time and/or Doppler domain for a multicarrier underwater acoustic system. We use a path-based channel model, where the channel is described by a limited number of paths, each characterized by a delay, Doppler scale, and attenuation factor, and derive the exact inter-carrierinterference (ICI) pattern. For channels that have limited Doppler spread we show that subspace algorithms from the array processing literature, namely Root-MUSIC and ESPRIT, can be applied for channel estimation. For channels with Doppler spread, we adopt a compressed sensing approach, in form of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and Basis Pursuit (BP) algorithms, and utilize overcomplete dictionaries with an increased path delay resolution. Numerical simulation and experimental data of an OFDM block-by-block receiver are used to evaluate the proposed algorithms in comparison to the conventional least-squares (LS) channel estimator.We observe that subspace methods can tolerate small to moderate Doppler effects, and outperform the LS approach when the channel is indeed sparse. On the other hand, compressed sensing algorithms uniformly outperform the LS and subspace methods. Coupled with a channel equalizer mitigating ICI, the compressed sensing algorithms can effectively handle channels with significant Doppler spread.