Vinogradova Nadya

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  • Article
    Satellite and in situ salinity : understanding near-surface stratification and subfootprint variability
    (American Meteorological Society, 2016-08-31) Boutin, Jacqueline ; Chao, Yi ; Asher, William E. ; Delcroix, Thierry ; Drucker, Robert S. ; Drushka, Kyla ; Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas ; Lee, Tong ; Reul, Nicolas ; Reverdin, Gilles ; Schanze, Julian J. ; Soloviev, Alexander ; Yu, Lisan ; Anderson, Jessica ; Brucker, Ludovic ; Dinnat, Emmanuel ; Santos-Garcia, Andrea ; Jones, W. Linwood ; Maes, Christophe ; Meissner, Thomas ; Tang, Wenqing ; Vinogradova, Nadya ; Ward, Brian
    Remote sensing of salinity using satellite-mounted microwave radiometers provides new perspectives for studying ocean dynamics and the global hydrological cycle. Calibration and validation of these measurements is challenging because satellite and in situ methods measure salinity differently. Microwave radiometers measure the salinity in the top few centimeters of the ocean, whereas most in situ observations are reported below a depth of a few meters. Additionally, satellites measure salinity as a spatial average over an area of about 100 × 100 km2. In contrast, in situ sensors provide pointwise measurements at the location of the sensor. Thus, the presence of vertical gradients in, and horizontal variability of, sea surface salinity complicates comparison of satellite and in situ measurements. This paper synthesizes present knowledge of the magnitude and the processes that contribute to the formation and evolution of vertical and horizontal variability in near-surface salinity. Rainfall, freshwater plumes, and evaporation can generate vertical gradients of salinity, and in some cases these gradients can be large enough to affect validation of satellite measurements. Similarly, mesoscale to submesoscale processes can lead to horizontal variability that can also affect comparisons of satellite data to in situ data. Comparisons between satellite and in situ salinity measurements must take into account both vertical stratification and horizontal variability.
  • Article
    Understanding of contemporary regional sea-level change and the implications for the future
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-04-17) Hamlington, Benjamin D. ; Gardner, Alex S. ; Ivins, Erik ; Lenaerts, Jan T. M. ; Reager, John T. ; Trossman, David S. ; Zaron, Edward D. ; Adhikari, Surendra ; Arendt, Anthony ; Aschwanden, Andy ; Beckley, Brian D. ; Bekaert, David P. S. ; Blewitt, Geoffrey ; Caron, Lambert ; Chambers, Don P. ; Chandanpurkar, Hrishikesh A. ; Christianson, Knut ; Csatho, Beata ; Cullather, Richard I. ; DeConto, Robert M. ; Fasullo, John T. ; Frederikse, Thomas ; Freymueller, Jeffrey T. ; Gilford, Daniel M. ; Girotto, Manuela ; Hammond, William C. ; Hock, Regine ; Holschuh, Nicholas ; Kopp, Robert E. ; Landerer, Felix ; Larour, Eric ; Menemenlis, Dimitris ; Merrifield, Mark ; Mitrovica, Jerry X. ; Nerem, R. Steven ; Nias, Isabel J. ; Nieves, Veronica ; Nowicki, Sophie ; Pangaluru, Kishore ; Piecuch, Christopher G. ; Ray, Richard D. ; Rounce, David R. ; Schlegel, Nicole‐Jeanne ; Seroussi, Helene ; Shirzaei, Manoochehr ; Sweet, William V. ; Velicogna, Isabella ; Vinogradova, Nadya ; Wahl, Thomas ; Wiese, David N. ; Willis, Michael J.
    Global sea level provides an important indicator of the state of the warming climate, but changes in regional sea level are most relevant for coastal communities around the world. With improvements to the sea‐level observing system, the knowledge of regional sea‐level change has advanced dramatically in recent years. Satellite measurements coupled with in situ observations have allowed for comprehensive study and improved understanding of the diverse set of drivers that lead to variations in sea level in space and time. Despite the advances, gaps in the understanding of contemporary sea‐level change remain and inhibit the ability to predict how the relevant processes may lead to future change. These gaps arise in part due to the complexity of the linkages between the drivers of sea‐level change. Here we review the individual processes which lead to sea‐level change and then describe how they combine and vary regionally. The intent of the paper is to provide an overview of the current state of understanding of the processes that cause regional sea‐level change and to identify and discuss limitations and uncertainty in our understanding of these processes. Areas where the lack of understanding or gaps in knowledge inhibit the ability to provide the needed information for comprehensive planning efforts are of particular focus. Finally, a goal of this paper is to highlight the role of the expanded sea‐level observation network—particularly as related to satellite observations—in the improved scientific understanding of the contributors to regional sea‐level change.