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ArticleEnvironmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure(BioMed Central, 2008-11-07) Dyble, Julianne ; Bienfang, Paul ; Dusek, Eva ; Hitchcock, Gary ; Holland, A. Fredrick ; Laws, Edward A. ; Lerczak, James A. ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. ; Minnett, Peter ; Moore, Stephanie K. ; O'Kelly, Charles ; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M. ; Wang, John D.Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges.
ArticleCenters for Oceans and Human Health : a unified approach to the challenge of harmful algal blooms(BioMed Central, 2008-11-07) Erdner, Deana L. ; Dyble, Julianne ; Parsons, Michael L. ; Stevens, Richard C. ; Hubbard, Katherine A. ; Wrabel, Michele L. ; Moore, Stephanie K. ; Lefebvre, Kathi A. ; Anderson, Donald M. ; Bienfang, Paul ; Bidigare, Robert R. ; Parker, Micaela S. ; Moeller, Peter D. R. ; Brand, Larry E. ; Trainer, Vera L.Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are one focus of the national research initiatives on Oceans and Human Health (OHH) at NIEHS, NOAA and NSF. All of the OHH Centers, from the east coast to Hawaii, include one or more research projects devoted to studying HAB problems and their relationship to human health. The research shares common goals for understanding, monitoring and predicting HAB events to protect and improve human health: understanding the basic biology of the organisms; identifying how chemistry, hydrography and genetic diversity influence blooms; developing analytical methods and sensors for cells and toxins; understanding health effects of toxin exposure; and developing conceptual, empirical and numerical models of bloom dynamics. In the past several years, there has been significant progress toward all of the common goals. Several studies have elucidated the effects of environmental conditions and genetic heterogeneity on bloom dynamics. New methods have been developed or implemented for the detection of HAB cells and toxins, including genetic assays for Pseudo-nitzschia and Microcystis, and a biosensor for domoic acid. There have been advances in predictive models of blooms, most notably for the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium and Karenia. Other work is focused on the future, studying the ways in which climate change may affect HAB incidence, and assessing the threat from emerging HABs and toxins, such as the cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine. Along the way, many challenges have been encountered that are common to the OHH Centers and also echo those of the wider HAB community. Long-term field data and basic biological information are needed to develop accurate models. Sensor development is hindered by the lack of simple and rapid assays for algal cells and especially toxins. It is also critical to adequately understand the human health effects of HAB toxins. Currently, we understand best the effects of acute toxicity, but almost nothing is known about the effects of chronic, subacute toxin exposure. The OHH initiatives have brought scientists together to work collectively on HAB issues, within and across regions. The successes that have been achieved highlight the value of collaboration and cooperation across disciplines, if we are to continue to advance our understanding of HABs and their relationship to human health.