Collier Tracy K.

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Tracy K.

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  • Article
    Framework for a community health observing system for the Gulf of Mexico Region: preparing for future disasters
    (Frontiers Media, 2020-10-15) Sandifer, Paul ; Knapp, Landon ; Lichtveld, Maureen ; Manley, Ruth ; Abramson, David ; Caffey, Rex ; Cochran, David ; Collier, Tracy K. ; Ebi, Kristie ; Engel, Lawrence ; Farrington, John W. ; Finucane, Melissa ; Hale, Christine ; Halpern, David ; Harville, Emily ; Hart, Leslie ; Hswen, Yulin ; Kirkpatrick, Barbara ; McEwen, Bruce F. ; Morris, Glenn ; Orbach, Raymond ; Palinkas, Lawrence ; Partyka, Melissa ; Porter, Dwayne ; Prather, Aric A. ; Rowles, Teresa K. ; Scott, Geoffrey ; Seeman, Teresa ; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M. ; Svendsen, Erik ; Tincher, Terry ; Trtanj, Juli ; Walker, Ann Hayward ; Yehuda, Rachel ; Yip, Fuyuen ; Yoskowitz, David ; Singer, Burton
    The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) region is prone to disasters, including recurrent oil spills, hurricanes, floods, industrial accidents, harmful algal blooms, and the current COVID-19 pandemic. The GoM and other regions of the U.S. lack sufficient baseline health information to identify, attribute, mitigate, and facilitate prevention of major health effects of disasters. Developing capacity to assess adverse human health consequences of future disasters requires establishment of a comprehensive, sustained community health observing system, similar to the extensive and well-established environmental observing systems. We propose a system that combines six levels of health data domains, beginning with three existing, national surveys and studies plus three new nested, longitudinal cohort studies. The latter are the unique and most important parts of the system and are focused on the coastal regions of the five GoM States. A statistically representative sample of participants is proposed for the new cohort studies, stratified to ensure proportional inclusion of urban and rural populations and with additional recruitment as necessary to enroll participants from particularly vulnerable or under-represented groups. Secondary data sources such as syndromic surveillance systems, electronic health records, national community surveys, environmental exposure databases, social media, and remote sensing will inform and augment the collection of primary data. Primary data sources will include participant-provided information via questionnaires, clinical measures of mental and physical health, acquisition of biological specimens, and wearable health monitoring devices. A suite of biomarkers may be derived from biological specimens for use in health assessments, including calculation of allostatic load, a measure of cumulative stress. The framework also addresses data management and sharing, participant retention, and system governance. The observing system is designed to continue indefinitely to ensure that essential pre-, during-, and post-disaster health data are collected and maintained. It could also provide a model/vehicle for effective health observation related to infectious disease pandemics such as COVID-19. To our knowledge, there is no comprehensive, disaster-focused health observing system such as the one proposed here currently in existence or planned elsewhere. Significant strengths of the GoM Community Health Observing System (CHOS) are its longitudinal cohorts and ability to adapt rapidly as needs arise and new technologies develop.
  • Article
    The coastal environment and human health : microbial indicators, pathogens, sentinels and reservoirs
    (BioMed Central, 2008-11-07) Stewart, Jill R. ; Gast, Rebecca J. ; Fujioka, Roger S. ; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M. ; Meschke, J. Scott ; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A. ; del Castillo, Erika ; Polz, Martin F. ; Collier, Tracy K. ; Strom, Mark S. ; Sinigalliano, Christopher D. ; Moeller, Peter D. R. ; Holland, A. Fredrick
    Innovative research relating oceans and human health is advancing our understanding of disease-causing organisms in coastal ecosystems. Novel techniques are elucidating the loading, transport and fate of pathogens in coastal ecosystems, and identifying sources of contamination. This research is facilitating improved risk assessments for seafood consumers and those who use the oceans for recreation. A number of challenges still remain and define future directions of research and public policy. Sample processing and molecular detection techniques need to be advanced to allow rapid and specific identification of microbes of public health concern from complex environmental samples. Water quality standards need to be updated to more accurately reflect health risks and to provide managers with improved tools for decision-making. Greater discrimination of virulent versus harmless microbes is needed to identify environmental reservoirs of pathogens and factors leading to human infections. Investigations must include examination of microbial community dynamics that may be important from a human health perspective. Further research is needed to evaluate the ecology of non-enteric water-transmitted diseases. Sentinels should also be established and monitored, providing early warning of dangers to ecosystem health. Taken together, this effort will provide more reliable information about public health risks associated with beaches and seafood consumption, and how human activities can affect their exposure to disease-causing organisms from the oceans.
  • Preprint
    Reduced cytochrome P4501A activity and recovery from oxidative stress during subchronic benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[e]pyrene treatment of rainbow trout
    ( 2011-04-08) Curtis, Lawrence R. ; Garzon, Claudia B. ; Arkoosh, Mary ; Collier, Tracy K. ; Myers, Mark S. ; Buzitis, Jon ; Hahn, Mark E.
    This study assessed the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) affinity, and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein and activity in polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-­‐induced oxidative stress. In the 1-­‐100 nM concentration range benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) but not benzo[e]pyrene (BeP) competitively displaced 2 nM [3H]2, 3, 7, 8-­‐tetrachloro-­‐dibenzo-­‐p-­‐dioxin from rainbow trout AHR2α. Based on appearance of fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile over 3, 7, 14, 28 or 50 days of feeding 3 μg of BaP or BeP/g fish/day, rainbow trout liver readily excreted these polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites at near steady state rates. CYP1A proteins catalyzed more than 98% of ethoxyresorufin-­‐O-­‐deethylase (EROD) activity in rainbow trout hepatic microsomes. EROD activity of hepatic microsomes initially increased and then decreased to control activities after 50 days of feeding both PAHs. Immunohistochemistry of liver confirmed CYP1A protein increased in fish fed both PAHs after 3 days and remained elevated for up to 28 days. Neither BaP nor BeP increased hepatic DNA adduct concentrations at any time up to 50 days of feeding these PAHs. Comet assays of blood cells demonstrated marked DNA damage after 14 days of feeding both PAHs that was not significant after 50 days. There was a strong positive correlation between hepatic EROD activity and DNA damage in blood cells over time for both PAHs. Neither CYP1A protein nor 3-­‐ nitrotyrosine (a biomarker for oxidative stress) immunostaining in trunk kidney were significantly altered by BaP or BeP after 3, 7, 14, or 28 days. There was no clear association between AHR2α affinity and BaP and BeP-­‐induced oxidative stress.