Singh Arvind

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  • Article
    Progress in understanding of Indian Ocean circulation, variability, air-sea exchange, and impacts on biogeochemistry
    (European Geosciences Union, 2021-11-26) Phillips, Helen E. ; Tandon, Amit ; Furue, Ryo ; Hood, Raleigh R. ; Ummenhofer, Caroline C. ; Benthuysen, Jessica A. ; Menezes, Viviane V. ; Hu, Shijian ; Webber, Ben ; Sanchez-Franks, Alejandra ; Cherian, Deepak A. ; Shroyer, Emily L. ; Feng, Ming ; Wijesekera, Hemantha W. ; Chatterjee, Abhisek ; Yu, Lisan ; Hermes, Juliet ; Murtugudde, Raghu ; Tozuka, Tomoki ; Su, Danielle ; Singh, Arvind ; Centurioni, Luca R. ; Prakash, Satya ; Wiggert, Jerry D.
    Over the past decade, our understanding of the Indian Ocean has advanced through concerted efforts toward measuring the ocean circulation and air–sea exchanges, detecting changes in water masses, and linking physical processes to ecologically important variables. New circulation pathways and mechanisms have been discovered that control atmospheric and oceanic mean state and variability. This review brings together new understanding of the ocean–atmosphere system in the Indian Ocean since the last comprehensive review, describing the Indian Ocean circulation patterns, air–sea interactions, and climate variability. Coordinated international focus on the Indian Ocean has motivated the application of new technologies to deliver higher-resolution observations and models of Indian Ocean processes. As a result we are discovering the importance of small-scale processes in setting the large-scale gradients and circulation, interactions between physical and biogeochemical processes, interactions between boundary currents and the interior, and interactions between the surface and the deep ocean. A newly discovered regional climate mode in the southeast Indian Ocean, the Ningaloo Niño, has instigated more regional air–sea coupling and marine heatwave research in the global oceans. In the last decade, we have seen rapid warming of the Indian Ocean overlaid with extremes in the form of marine heatwaves. These events have motivated studies that have delivered new insight into the variability in ocean heat content and exchanges in the Indian Ocean and have highlighted the critical role of the Indian Ocean as a clearing house for anthropogenic heat. This synthesis paper reviews the advances in these areas in the last decade.
  • Article
    A sustained ocean observing system in the Indian Ocean for climate related scientific knowledge and societal needs
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-06-28) Hermes, Juliet ; Masumoto, Yukio ; Beal, Lisa M. ; Roxy, Mathew Koll ; Vialard, Jérôme ; Andres, Magdalena ; Annamalai, Hariharasubramanian ; Behera, Swadhin ; D’Adamo, Nick ; Doi, Takeshi ; Feng, Ming ; Han, Weiqing ; Hardman-Mountford, Nick ; Hendon, Harry ; Hood, Raleigh R. ; Kido, Shoichiro ; Lee, Craig M. ; Lee, Tong ; Lengaigne, Matthieu ; Li, Jing ; Lumpkin, Rick ; Navaneeth, K. N. ; Milligan, Ben ; McPhaden, Michael J. ; Ravichandran, M. ; Shinoda, Toshiaki ; Singh, Arvind ; Sloyan, Bernadette M. ; Strutton, Peter G. ; Subramanian, Aneesh C. ; Thurston, Sidney ; Tozuka, Tomoki ; Ummenhofer, Caroline C. ; Unnikrishnan, Shankaran Alakkat ; Venkatesan, Ramasamy ; Wang, Dongxiao ; Wiggert, Jerry D. ; Yu, Lisan ; Yu, Weidong
    The Indian Ocean is warming faster than any of the global oceans and its climate is uniquely driven by the presence of a landmass at low latitudes, which causes monsoonal winds and reversing currents. The food, water, and energy security in the Indian Ocean rim countries and islands are intrinsically tied to its climate, with marine environmental goods and services, as well as trade within the basin, underpinning their economies. Hence, there are a range of societal needs for Indian Ocean observation arising from the influence of regional phenomena and climate change on, for instance, marine ecosystems, monsoon rains, and sea-level. The Indian Ocean Observing System (IndOOS), is a sustained observing system that monitors basin-scale ocean-atmosphere conditions, while providing flexibility in terms of emerging technologies and scientificand societal needs, and a framework for more regional and coastal monitoring. This paper reviews the societal and scientific motivations, current status, and future directions of IndOOS, while also discussing the need for enhanced coastal, shelf, and regional observations. The challenges of sustainability and implementation are also addressed, including capacity building, best practices, and integration of resources. The utility of IndOOS ultimately depends on the identification of, and engagement with, end-users and decision-makers and on the practical accessibility and transparency of data for a range of products and for decision-making processes. Therefore we highlight current progress, issues and challenges related to end user engagement with IndOOS, as well as the needs of the data assimilation and modeling communities. Knowledge of the status of the Indian Ocean climate and ecosystems and predictability of its future, depends on a wide range of socio-economic and environmental data, a significant part of which is provided by IndOOS.