Erickson Zachary K.

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Erickson
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Zachary K.
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  • Article
    Satellites to seafloor : toward fully autonomous ocean sampling
    (Oceanography Society, 2017-06) Thompson, Andrew F. ; Chao, Yi ; Chien, Steve ; Kinsey, James C. ; Flexas, M. Mar ; Erickson, Zachary K. ; Farrara, John ; Fratantoni, David M. ; Branch, Andrew ; Chu, Selina ; Troesch, Martina ; Claus, Brian ; Kepper, James
    Future ocean observing systems will rely heavily on autonomous vehicles to achieve the persistent and heterogeneous measurements needed to understand the ocean’s impact on the climate system. The day-to-day maintenance of these arrays will become increasingly challenging if significant human resources, such as manual piloting, are required. For this reason, techniques need to be developed that permit autonomous determination of sampling directives based on science goals and responses to in situ, remote-sensing, and model-derived information. Techniques that can accommodate large arrays of assets and permit sustained observations of rapidly evolving ocean properties are especially needed for capturing interactions between physical circulation and biogeochemical cycling. Here we document the first field program of the Satellites to Seafloor project, designed to enable a closed loop of numerical model prediction, vehicle path-planning, in situ path implementation, data collection, and data assimilation for future model predictions. We present results from the first of two field programs carried out in Monterey Bay, California, over a period of three months in 2016. While relatively modest in scope, this approach provides a step toward an observing array that makes use of multiple information streams to update and improve sampling strategies without human intervention.
  • Article
    An operational overview of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) Northeast Pacific field deployment
    (University of California Press, 2021-07-07) Siegel, David A. ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Graff, Jason R. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Nelson, Norman B. ; Perry, Mary J. ; Soto Ramos, Inia ; Steinberg, Deborah K. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Hamme, Roberta C. ; Fassbender, Andrea ; Nicholson, David P. ; Omand, Melissa M. ; Robert, Marie ; Thompson, Andrew F. ; Amaral, Vinicius ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R. ; Bisson, Kelsey ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Boyd, Philip ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Buck, Kristen N. ; Burd, Adrian B. ; Burns, Shannon ; Caprara, Salvatore ; Carlson, Craig A. ; Cassar, Nicolas ; Close, Hilary G. ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Durkin, Colleen A. ; Erickson, Zachary K. ; Estapa, Margaret L. ; Fields, Erik ; Fox, James ; Freeman, Scott ; Gifford, Scott M. ; Gong, Weida ; Gray, Deric ; Guidi, Lionel ; Haëntjens, Nils ; Halsey, Kim ; Huot, Yannick ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Jenkins, Bethany D. ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Kramer, Sasha J. ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Lee, Jong-Mi ; Maas, Amy E. ; Marchal, Olivier ; Marchetti, Adrian ; McDonnell, Andrew M. P. ; McNair, Heather ; Menden-Deuer, Susanne ; Morison, Francoise ; Niebergall, Alexandria K. ; Passow, Uta ; Popp, Brian N. ; Potvin, Geneviève ; Resplandy, Laure ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Rynearson, Tatiana A. ; Traylor, Shawnee ; Santoro, Alyson E. ; Seraphin, Kanesa ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Stamieszkin, Karen ; Stephens, Brandon M. ; Tang, Weiyi ; Van Mooy, Benjamin ; Xiong, Yuanheng ; Zhang, Xiaodong
    The goal of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) field campaign is to develop a predictive understanding of the export, fate, and carbon cycle impacts of global ocean net primary production. To accomplish this goal, observations of export flux pathways, plankton community composition, food web processes, and optical, physical, and biogeochemical (BGC) properties are needed over a range of ecosystem states. Here we introduce the first EXPORTS field deployment to Ocean Station Papa in the Northeast Pacific Ocean during summer of 2018, providing context for other papers in this special collection. The experiment was conducted with two ships: a Process Ship, focused on ecological rates, BGC fluxes, temporal changes in food web, and BGC and optical properties, that followed an instrumented Lagrangian float; and a Survey Ship that sampled BGC and optical properties in spatial patterns around the Process Ship. An array of autonomous underwater assets provided measurements over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and partnering programs and remote sensing observations provided additional observational context. The oceanographic setting was typical of late-summer conditions at Ocean Station Papa: a shallow mixed layer, strong vertical and weak horizontal gradients in hydrographic properties, sluggish sub-inertial currents, elevated macronutrient concentrations and low phytoplankton abundances. Although nutrient concentrations were consistent with previous observations, mixed layer chlorophyll was lower than typically observed, resulting in a deeper euphotic zone. Analyses of surface layer temperature and salinity found three distinct surface water types, allowing for diagnosis of whether observed changes were spatial or temporal. The 2018 EXPORTS field deployment is among the most comprehensive biological pump studies ever conducted. A second deployment to the North Atlantic Ocean occurred in spring 2021, which will be followed by focused work on data synthesis and modeling using the entire EXPORTS data set.
  • Working Paper
    EXPORTS North Atlantic eddy tracking
    (NASA STI Program and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2022-10) Erickson, Zachary K. ; Fields, Erik ; Omand, Melissa M. ; Johnson, Leah ; Thompson, Andrew F. ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Carvalho, Filipa ; Dove, Lilian A. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Nicholson, David P. ; Shilling, Geoff ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Siegel, David A.
    The EXPORTS North Atlantic field campaign (EXPORTS-NA) of May 2021 used a diverse array of ship-based and autonomous platforms to measure and quantify processes leading to carbon export in the open ocean. The success of this field program relied heavily on the ability to make measurements following a Lagrangian trajectory within a coherent, retentive eddy (Sections 1, 2). Identifying an eddy that would remain coherent and retentive over the course of a monthlong deployment was a significant challenge that the EXPORTS team faced. This report details the processes and procedures used by the primarily shore-based eddy tracking team to locate, track, and sample with autonomous assets such an eddy before and during EXPORTS-NA.
  • Working Paper
    EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) North Atlantic sensor calibration and intercalibration documents
    (NASA STI Program and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2023-10-11) Siegel, David A. ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Thompson, Andrew F. ; Nelson, Norman B. ; Sten, Michaela ; Omand, Melissa M. ; Traylor, Shawnee ; Nicholson, David P. ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Zhang, Xiaodong ; Erickson, Zachary K. ; Johnson, Leah ; Soto Ramos, Inia
    The following documents collect information regarding the calibration and intercalibration of various sensors that were deployed during the North Atlantic field component of the NASA EXPORTS project (EXPORTS NA), which took place between May 4 and June 1, 2021 (Johnson et al., 2023). The EXPORTS NA campaign was designed to to provide a contrasting end member to the earlier North Pacific field campaign, and focused on carbon export associated with the North Atlantic spring bloom in which gravitational sinking of organic particles, the physical advection and mixing, and active transport by vertically migrating zooplankton are all expected to provide significant flux pathways. During EXPORTS NA data sets were collected from a variety of shipbased, autonomously-piloted, and Lagrangian platforms. Intercalibration activities were tasked to different groups within the EXPORTS project team. Team leads and contact information are listed below. The overarching goal of these activities was to identify a trusted sensor, carry out a careful calibration of this sensor, then base any intercalibraiton needs off of this sensor, occasionally propagating information across platforms. Full details of the intercalibration approach, assumptions, and summary are provided in the attached documents. All calibration and intercalibration activities were completed before data set were uplaoded to the NASA SeaBASS data repository. Data related to this cruise can be publicly accessed at: https://seabass.gsfc.nasa.gov/cruise/EXPORTSNA Updates to calibration and intercalibration documents required to reflect revised data sets will also be provided through SeaBASS. Questions concerning referencing these documents or accessing data sets should be directed to Inia Soto Ramos. NASA EXPORTS Science Lead: David Siegel, davesiegel@ucsb.edu NASA EXPORTS Project Scientist: Ivona Cetini´c, ivona.cetinic@nasa.gov NASA EXPORTS Data Manager: Inia Soto Ramos, inia.m.sotoramos@nasa.gov Calibration and intercalibration leads Temperature and salinity sensors: Andy Thompson, andrewt@caltech.edu Chlorophyll fluorescence sensors: Melissa Omand & Kaley Sten, momand@uri.edu Oxygen sensors: Shawnee Traylor & Roo Nicholson, shawnee@mit.edu Optical backscatter sensors: Xiaodong Zhang, Xiaodong.Zhang@usm.edu Lagrangian float sensors: Eric D’Asaro, dasaro@apl.washington.edu Underway sensors: Leah Johnson, leahjohn@uw.edu Underwater Vision Profiler (UVP)-Particle Size Distribution (PSD): David Siegel, davesiegel@ucsb.edu