Lin Ying-Tsong

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  • Article
    Effect of the presence of virus-like particles on bacterial growth in sunlit xurface and dark deep ocean environments in the southern East China Sea
    (MDPI, 2021-10-19) Tsai, An-Yi ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Gong, Gwo-Ching
    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are thought to increase the dissolved organic carbon by releasing the contents of the host cell, which, in turn, can affect bacterial growth in natural aquatic environments. Yet, experimental tests have shown that the effect of VLPs on the bacterial growth rate at different depths has seldom been studied. Bacteria–VLP interaction and the effect of VLPs on bacterial growth rate in the sunlit surface (3 m) and dark, deep ocean (130 m) environments were first explored at a test site in the southern East China Sea of the northwest Pacific. Our experimental results indicated that bacterial and virus-like particle (VLP) abundance decreased with depth from 0.8 ± 0.3 × 105 cells mL−1 and 1.8 ± 0.4 × 106 VLPs mL−1 at 3 m to 0.4 ± 0.1 × 105 cells mL−1 and 1.4 ± 0.3 × 106 VLPs mL−1 at 130 m. We found that the abundance of VLPs to Bacteria Ratio (VBR) in the dark deep ocean (VBR = 35.0 ± 5.6) was higher than in the sunlit surface environment (VBR = 22.5 ± 2.1). The most interesting finding is that in the dark, deep ocean region the bacterial growth rate in the presence of VLPs was higher (0.05 h−1) than that in virus-diluted treatments (0.01 h−1). However, there was no significant difference in the bacterial growth rates between the treatments in the sunlit surface ocean region. Deep-sea ecosystems are dark and extreme environments that lack primary photosynthetic production, and our estimates imply that the contribution of recycled carbon by viral lysis is highly significant for bacterial growth in the dark, deep ocean environment. Further work for more study sites is needed to identify the relationship of VLPs and their hosts to enable us to understand the role of VLPs at different depths in the East China Sea.
  • Article
    Effects of pacific summer water layer variations and ice cover on Beaufort Sea underwater sound ducting
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2021-04-01) Duda, Timothy F. ; Zhang, Weifeng G. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong
    A one-year fixed-path observation of seasonally varying subsurface ducted sound propagation in the Beaufort Sea is presented. The ducted and surface-interacting sounds have different time behaviors. To understand this, a surface-forced computational model of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas with ice cover is used to simulate local conditions, which are then used to computationally simulate sound propagation. A sea ice module is employed to grow/melt ice and to transfer heat and momentum through the ice. The model produces a time- and space-variable duct as observed, with Pacific Winter Water (PWW) beneath a layer of Pacific Summer Water (PSW) and above warm Atlantic water. In the model, PSW moves northward from the Alaskan coastal area in late summer to strengthen the sound duct, and then mean PSW temperature decreases during winter and spring, reducing the duct effectiveness, one cause of a duct annual cycle. Spatially, the modeled PSW is strained and filamentary, with horizontally structured temperature. Sound simulations (order 200 Hz) suggest that ducting is interrupted by the intermittency of the PSW (duct gaps), with gaps enabling loss from ice cover (set constant in the sound model). The gaps and ducted sound show seasonal tendencies but also exhibit random process behavior.
  • Article
    Three-dimensional modeling of T-wave generation and propagation from a South Mid-Atlantic Ridge earthquake
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2021-11-19) Lecoulant, Jean ; Oliveira, Tiago C. A. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong
    A three-dimensional (3D) hybrid modeling method is used to study the generation and propagation of T waves in the ocean triggered by a Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge earthquake. First, a finite-element method model named SPECFEM3D is used to propagate seismic waves in the crust and acoustic waves in the ocean for the T-wave generation in a 200 × 50 km area near the epicenter. A 3D parabolic equation (PE) method is then used to propagate the T waves in the ocean for about 850 km further to the hydrophone stations deployed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) near Ascension Island. All of the simulations considered the realistic bathymetry and water sound speed profile. The SPECFEM3D results suggest that T waves with clear modal features could be generated by the concentration of reflected head waves in two depressions 40 km away from the epicenter. To compare with the hybrid modeling method for calculating T-wave propagation losses and arrival azimuths at the CTBTO hydrophones, point source simulations using the 3D PE model from the T waves source locations, identified with SPECFEM3D, were also implemented. The advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed.
  • Article
    Long distance passive localization of vocalizing sei whales using an acoustic normal mode approach
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2012-02) Newhall, Arthur E. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Lynch, James F. ; Baumgartner, Mark F. ; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G.
    During a 2 day period in mid-September 2006, more than 200, unconfirmed but identifiable, sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) calls were collected as incidental data during a multidisciplinary oceanography and acoustics experiment on the shelf off New Jersey. Using a combined vertical and horizontal acoustic receiving array, sei whale movements were tracked over long distances (up to tens of kilometers) using a normal mode back propagation technique. This approach uses low-frequency, broadband passive sei whale call receptions from a single-station, two-dimensional hydrophone array to perform long distance localization and tracking by exploiting the dispersive nature of propagating normal modes in a shallow water environment. The back propagation approach is examined for accuracy and application to tracking the sei whale vocalizations identified in the vertical and horizontal array signals. This passive whale tracking, combined with the intensive oceanography measurements performed during the experiment, was also used to examine sei whale movements in relation to oceanographic features observed in this region.
  • Article
    Three-dimensional boundary fitted parabolic-equation model of underwater sound propagation
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2019-09-30) Lin, Ying-Tsong
    A three-dimensional (3-D) parabolic-equation (PE) method utilizing a higher-order split-step Padé algorithm and a boundary fitted grid has been developed to accurately solve 3-D underwater sound propagation problems with non-planar or tilted boundaries. At each PE marching step, the split-step Padé algorithm enables the method of alternating directions to implement the square-root Helmholtz operator by carrying out its one-dimensional (1-D) derivative components alternately, and it also allows a straightforward application of the 1-D non-uniform Galerkin method to discretize the solution mesh. The advantage of the boundary fitted grid to improve PE solution accuracy is most profound in the case of fitting to a pressure release surface as its boundary condition is a scalar and has no direction. This method can also be applied to a sloping interface by rotating the grid to align with the interface. Numerical problems of semi-circular waveguide and tilted wedge were solved using this boundary fitted PE method, and benchmark reference solutions were used to examine and confirm the accuracy of the PE solutions. Future applications include modeling 3-D acoustic scattering from a rough sea surface and 3-D sound propagation in beach environments.
  • Article
    A higher-order tangent linear parabolic-equation solution of three-dimensional sound propagation
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2013-07-15) Lin, Ying-Tsong
    A higher-order square-root operator splitting algorithm is employed to derive a tangent linear solution for the three-dimensional parabolic wave equation due to small variations of the sound speed in the medium. The solution shown in this paper unifies other solutions obtained from less accurate approximations. Examples of three-dimensional acoustic ducts are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the solution. Future work on the applications of associated adjoint models for acoustic inversions is proposed and discussed.
  • Technical Report
    Acoustic and oceanographic observations collected during the Nomans Island experiment in Spring 2017
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-07) Johnson, Hansen D. ; Newhall, Arthur E. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Baumgartner, Mark F.
    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) has developed a digital acoustic monitoring (DMON) instrument and low-frequency detection and classification system (LFDCS) to detect and classify baleen whales in near real-time from autonomous platforms. This document provides a detailed description of the data, sensors, and research activities pertaining to the Nomans Island experiment, which was designed to evaluate the range-dependent accuracy of the DMON/LFDCS on mobile and fixed platforms. The experiment took place over a 4-week period (28 Feb to 31 Mar) in the spring of 2017 at a shallow (30m) site approximately 15 km Southwest of Martha’s Vineyard, USA. A DMON/LFDCS-equipped Slocum glider was deployed alongside an extant DMON/LFDCS moored buoy to provide the means to compare system performance between platforms. Vertical and horizontal hydrophone line arrays were deployed in the same area to facilitate call localization. A short transmission loss trial was conducted shortly after the array deployments. The Slocum glider and several sensors mounted to the arrays provided environmental data to characterize variability in water column structure and sound speed during the study period.
  • Article
    Effects of front width on acoustic ducting by a continuous curved front over a sloping bottom
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2019-09-30) DeCourcy, Brendan ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Siegmann, William L.
    The behavior of sound near an ocean front in a region with wedge bathymetry is examined. The front is parameterized as a zone of variation with inshore and offshore boundaries parallel to a straight coastline. The importance of frontal width and frontal sound speed on the ducting of acoustic energy is examined. Previous analytical studies of sound propagation and parameter sensitivity in an idealized wedge environment use an unphysical but convenient single interface front representation, which is here replaced by a continuous sound speed profile. The continuous profile selected is convenient for analytical investigation, but encourages the use of asymptotic approximation methods which are also described. The analytical solution method is outlined, and numerical results are produced with an emphasis on comparing to the single interface front. These comparisons are made to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the idealized model for capturing the horizontal ducting effects.
  • Article
    Acoustic ducting, reflection, refraction, and dispersion by curved nonlinear internal waves in shallow water
    (IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society, 2010-02-08) Lynch, James F. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Duda, Timothy F. ; Newhall, Arthur E.
    Nonlinear internal waves in shallow water have been shown to be effective ducts of acoustic energy, through theory, numerical modeling, and experiment. To date, most work on such ducting has concentrated on rectilinear internal wave ducts or those with very slight curvature. In this paper, we examine the acoustic effects of significant curvature of these internal waves. (By significant curvature, we mean lateral deviation of the internal wave duct by more than half the spacing between internal waves over an acoustic path, giving a transition from ducting to antiducting.) We develop basic analytical models of these effects, employ fully 3-D numerical models of sound propagation and scattering, and examine simultaneous acoustical and oceanographic data from the 2006 Shallow Water Experiment (SW06). It will be seen that the effects of curvature should be evident in the mode amplitudes and arrival angles, and that observations are consistent with curvature, though with some possible ambiguity with other scattering mechanisms.
  • Article
    Experimental and numerical studies of sound propagation over a submarine canyon northeast of Taiwan
    (IEEE, 2015-01-09) Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Duda, Timothy F. ; Emerson, Chris ; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G. ; Newhall, Arthur E. ; Calder, Brian ; Lynch, James F. ; Abbot, Philip A. ; Yang, Yiing-Jang ; Jan, Sen
    A study of sound propagation over a submarine canyon northeast of Taiwan was made using mobile acoustic sources during a joint ocean acoustic and physical oceanographic experiment in 2009. The acoustic signal levels (equivalently, transmission losses) are reported here, and numerical models of 3-D sound propagation are employed to explain the underlying physics. The data show a significant decrease in sound intensity as the source crossed over the canyon, and the numerical model provides a physical insight into this effect. In addition, the model also suggests that reflection from the canyon seabed causes 3-D sound focusing when the direction of propagation is along the canyon axis, which remains to be validated in a future experiment. Environmental uncertainties of water sound speed, bottom geoacoustic properties, and bathymetry are addressed, and the implications for sound propagation prediction in a complex submarine canyon environment are also discussed.
  • Article
    Horizontal refraction of propagating sound due to seafloor scours over a range-dependent layered bottom on the New Jersey shelf
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2012-04) Ballard, Megan S. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Lynch, James F.
    Three-dimensional propagation effects of low frequency sound from 100 to 400 Hz caused by seafloor topography and range-dependent bottom structure over a 20 km range along the New Jersey shelf are investigated using a hybrid modeling approach. Normal modes are used in the vertical dimension, and a parabolic-equation approximate model is applied to solve the horizontal refraction equation. Examination of modal amplitudes demonstrates the effect of environmental range dependence on modes trapped in the water column, modes interacting with the bottom, and modes trapped in the bottom. Using normal mode ray tracing, topographic features responsible for three-dimensional effects of horizontal refraction and focusing are identified. These effects are observed in the measurements from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment. Specifically, signals from a pair of fixed sources recorded on a horizontal line array sitting on the seafloor show an intensification caused by horizontal focusing due to the seabed topography of 4 dB along the array.
  • Article
    Characterization of impact pile driving signals during installation of offshore wind turbine foundations
    ( 2020-04-17) Amaral, Jennifer L. ; Miller, James H. ; Potty, Gopu R. ; Vigness-Raposa, Kathleen J. ; Frankel, Adam S. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Newhall, Arthur E. ; Wilkes, Daniel R. ; Gavrilov, Alexander N.
    Impact pile driving creates intense, impulsive sound that radiates into the surrounding environment. Piles driven vertically into the seabed generate an azimuthally symmetric underwater sound field whereas piles driven on an angle will generate an azimuthally dependent sound field. Measurements were made during pile driving of raked piles to secure jacket foundation structures to the seabed in waters off the northeastern coast of the U.S. at ranges between 500 m and 15 km. These measurements were analyzed to investigate variations in rise time, decay time, pulse duration, kurtosis, and sound received levels as a function of range and azimuth. Variations in the radiated sound field along opposing azimuths resulted in differences in measured sound exposure levels of up to 10 dB and greater due to the pile rake as the sound propagated in range. The raked pile configuration was modeled using an equivalent axisymmetric FEM model to describe the azimuthally dependent measured sound fields. Comparable sound level differences in the model results confirmed that the azimuthal discrepancy observed in the measured data was due to the inclination of the pile being driven relative to the receiver.
  • Article
    Estimate of the bottom compressional wave speed profile in the northeastern South China Sea using "Sources of Opportunity"
    (IEEE, 2004-10) Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Lynch, James F. ; Chotiros, Nicholas P. ; Chen, Chi-Fang ; Newhall, Arthur E. ; Turgut, Altan ; Schock, Steven G. ; Chiu, Ching-Sang ; Bartek, Louis R. ; Liu, Char-Shine
    The inversion of a broad-band "source of opportunity" signal for bottom geoacoustic parameters in the northeastern South China Sea (SCS) is presented, which supplements the towed source and chirp sonar bottom inversions that were performed as part of the Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment (ASIAEX). This source of opportunity was most likely a "dynamite fishing" signal, which has sufficient low-frequency content (5-500 Hz) to make it complimentary to the somewhat higher frequency J-15-3 towed source (50-260 Hz) signals and the much higher frequency (1-10 kHz) chirp signals. This low frequency content will penetrate deeper into the bottom, thus extending the other inverse results. Localization of the source is discussed, using both a horizontal array for azimuthal steering and the "water wave" part of the pulse arrival for distance estimation. A linear broad-band inverse is performed, and three new variants of the broad-band inverse, based on: 1) the Airy phase; 2) the cutoff frequency; and 3) a range-dependent medium are presented. A multilayer model of the bottom compressional wave speed is obtained, and error estimates for this model are shown, both for the range-independent approximation to the waveguide and for the range-dependent waveguide. Directions for future research are discussed.
  • Article
    Acoustic detection range of right whale upcalls identified in near-real time from a moored buoy and a Slocum glider
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2022-04-13) Johnson, Hansen D. ; Taggart, Christopher T. ; Newhall, Arthur E. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Baumgartner, Mark F.
    The goal of this study was to characterize the detection range of a near real-time baleen whale detection system, the digital acoustic monitoring instrument/low-frequency detection and classification system (DMON/LFDCS), equipped on a Slocum glider and a moored buoy. As a reference, a hydrophone array was deployed alongside the glider and buoy at a shallow-water site southwest of Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts, USA) over a four-week period in spring 2017. A call-by-call comparison between North Atlantic right whale upcalls localized with the array (n = 541) and those detected by the glider or buoy was used to estimate the detection function for each DMON/LFDCS platform. The probability of detection was influenced by range, ambient noise level, platform depth, detection process, review protocol, and calling rate. The conservative analysis of near real-time pitch tracks suggested that, under typical conditions, a 0.33 probability of detection of a single call occurred at 6.2 km for the buoy and 8.6–13.4 km for the glider (depending on glider depth), while a 0.10 probability of detection of a single call occurred at 14.4 m for the buoy and 22.6–27.5 km for the glider. Probability of detection is predicted to increase substantially at all ranges if more than one call is available for detection.
  • Article
    On whether azimuthal isotropy and alongshelf translational invariance are present in low-frequency acoustic propagation along the New Jersey shelfbreak
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2012-02) Lynch, James F. ; Emerson, Chris ; Abbot, Philip A. ; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G. ; Newhall, Arthur E. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Duda, Timothy F.
    To understand the issues associated with the presence (or lack) of azimuthal isotropy and horizontal (along isobath) invariance of low-frequency (center frequencies of 600 Hz and 900 Hz) acoustic propagation in a shelfbreak environment, a series of experiments were conducted under the Autonomous Wide-Aperture Cluster for Surveillance component of the Shallow Water 2006 experiment. Transmission loss data reported here were from two mobile acoustic sources executing (nearly) circular tracks transmitting to sonobuoy receivers in the circle centers, and from one 12.5 km alongshelf acoustic track. The circle radii were 7.5 km. Data are from September 8, 2006. Details of the acoustic and environmental measurements are presented. Simple analytic and computer models are used to assess the variability expected due to the ocean and seabed conditions encountered. A comparison of model results and data is made, which shows preliminary consistency between the data and the models, but also points towards further work that should be undertaken specifically in enlarging the range and frequency parameter space, and in looking at integrated transmission loss.
  • Article
    Parameter dependence of acoustic mode quantities in an idealized model for shallow-water nonlinear internal wave ducts
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2019-09-30) Milone, Matthew A. ; DeCourcy, Brendan ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Siegmann, William L.
    Nonlinear internal waves in shallow water have significant acoustic impacts and cause three-dimensional ducting effects, for example, energy trapping in a duct between curved wavefronts that propagates over long distances. A normal mode approach applied to a three-dimensional idealized parametric model [Lin, McMahon, Lynch, and Siegmann, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(1), 37–49 (2013)] determines the dependence of such effects on parameters of the features. Specifically, an extension of mode number conservation leads to convenient analytical formulas for along-duct (angular) acoustic wavenumbers. The radial modes are classified into five types depending on geometric characteristics, resulting in five distinct formulas to obtain wavenumber approximations. Examples of their dependence on wavefront curvature and duct width, along with benchmark comparisons, demonstrate approximation accuracy over a broad range of physical values, even including situations where transitions in mode types occur with parameter changes. Horizontal-mode transmission loss contours found from approximate and numerically exact wavenumbers agree well in structure and location of intensity features. Cross-sectional plots show only small differences between pattern phases and amplitudes of the two calculations. The efficiency and accuracy of acoustic wavenumber and field approximations, in combination with the mode-type classifications, suggest their application to determining parameter sensitivity and also to other feature models.
  • Article
    Three-dimensional coupled mode analysis of internal-wave acoustic ducts
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2014-05) Shmelev, Alexey A. ; Lynch, James F. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Schmidt, Henrik
    A fully three-dimensional coupled mode approach is used in this paper to describe the physics of low frequency acoustic signals propagating through a train of internal waves at an arbitrary azimuth. A three layer model of the shallow water waveguide is employed for studying the properties of normal modes and their coupled interaction due to the presence of nonlinear internal waves. Using a robust wave number integration technique for Fourier transform computation and a direct global matrix approach, an accurate three-dimensional coupled mode full field solution is obtained for the tonal signal propagation through straight and parallel internal waves. This approach provides accurate results for arbitrary azimuth and includes the effects of backscattering. This enables one to provide an azimuthal analysis of acoustic propagation and separate the effects of mode coupled transparent resonance, horizontal reflection and refraction, the horizontal Lloyd's mirror, horizontal ducting and anti-ducting, and horizontal tunneling and secondary ducting.
  • Article
    Temporal and spatial dependence of a yearlong record of sound propagation from the Canada Basin to the Chukchi Shelf
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2020-09-23) Ballard, Megan S. ; Badiey, Mohsen ; Sagers, Jason D. ; Colosi, John A. ; Turgut, Altan ; Pecknold, Sean ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A.
    The Pacific Arctic Region has experienced decadal changes in atmospheric conditions, seasonal sea-ice coverage, and thermohaline structure that have consequences for underwater sound propagation. To better understand Arctic acoustics, a set of experiments known as the deep-water Canada Basin acoustic propagation experiment and the shallow-water Canada Basin acoustic propagation experiment was conducted in the Canada Basin and on the Chukchi Shelf from summer 2016 to summer 2017. During the experiments, low-frequency signals from five tomographic sources located in the deep basin were recorded by an array of hydrophones located on the shelf. Over the course of the yearlong experiment, the surface conditions transitioned from completely open water to fully ice-covered. The propagation conditions in the deep basin were dominated by a subsurface duct; however, over the slope and shelf, the duct was seen to significantly weaken during the winter and spring. The combination of these surface and subsurface conditions led to changes in the received level of the sources that exceeded 60 dB and showed a distinct spacio-temporal dependence, which was correlated with the locations of the sources in the basin. This paper seeks to quantify the observed variability in the received signals through propagation modeling using spatially sparse environmental measurements.
  • Article
    Low-frequency broadband sound source localization using an adaptive normal mode back-propagation approach in a shallow-water ocean
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2012-02) Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Newhall, Arthur E. ; Lynch, James F.
    A variety of localization methods with normal mode theory have been established for localizing low frequency (below a few hundred Hz), broadband signals in a shallow water environment. Gauss-Markov inverse theory is employed in this paper to derive an adaptive normal mode back-propagation approach. Joining with the maximum a posteriori mode filter, this approach is capable of separating signals from noisy data so that the back-propagation will not have significant influence from the noise. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the approach, along with comparisons to other methods. Applications to real data collected at the edge of the continental shelf off New Jersey, USA are presented, and the effects of water column fluctuations caused by nonlinear internal waves and shelfbreak front variability are discussed.
  • Article
    T-wave propagation from the Pacific to the Atlantic: the 2020 M7.4 Kermadec Trench earthquake case
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2021-12-13) Oliveira, Tiago C. A. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Kushida, Noriyuki ; Jesus, Sérgio M. ; Nielsen, Peter
    An Mw7.4 submarine earthquake occurred in the Kermadec Trench, northeast of New Zealand, on 18 June, 2020. This powerful earthquake triggered energetic tertiary waves (T-waves) that propagated through the South Pacific Ocean into the South Atlantic Ocean, where the T-waves were recorded by a hydrophone station near Ascension Island, 15 127 km away from the epicenter. Different T-wave arrivals were identified during the earthquake period with arrival angles deviating from the geodesic path. A three-dimensional sound propagation model has been utilized to investigate the cause of the deviation and confirm the horizontal diffraction of the T-waves at the Drake Passage.