Hardwick J. Marie
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PreprintBcl-xL regulates metabolic efficiency of neurons through interaction with the mitochondrial F1FO ATP synthase( 2011-06) Alavian, Kambiz N. ; Li, Hongmei ; Collis, Leon P. ; Bonanni, Laura ; Zeng, Lu ; Sacchetti, Silvio ; Lazrove, Emma ; Nabili, Panah ; Flaherty, Benjamin ; Graham, Morven ; Chen, Yingbei ; Messerli, Shanta M. ; Mariggio, Maria A. ; Rahner, Christoph ; McNay, Ewan ; Shore, Gordon ; Smith, Peter J. S. ; Hardwick, J. Marie ; Jonas, Elizabeth A.Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins such as Bcl-xL protect cells from death by sequestering apoptotic molecules, but also contribute to normal neuronal function. We find in hippocampal neurons that Bcl-xL enhances the efficiency of energy metabolism. Our evidence suggests that Bcl-xL interacts directly with the beta subunit of the F1FO ATP synthase, decreasing an ion leak within the F1FO ATPase complex and thereby increasing net transport of H+ by F1FO during F1FO ATPase activity. By patch clamping submitochondrial vesicles enriched in F1FO ATP synthase complexes, we find that, in the presence of ATP, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Bcl-xL increases the membrane leak conductance. In addition, recombinant Bcl-xL protein directly increases ATPase activity of purified synthase complexes, while inhibition of endogenous Bcl-xL decreases F1FO enzymatic activity. Our findings suggest that increased mitochondrial efficiency contributes to the enhanced synaptic efficacy found in Bcl-xL expressing neurons.
ArticleYeast cell death pathway requiring AP-3 vesicle trafficking leads to vacuole/lysosome membrane permeabilization(Cell Press, 2022-04-13) Stolp, Zachary D. ; Kulkarni, Madhura ; Liu, Yining ; Zhu, Chengzhang ; Jalisi, Alizay ; Lin, Si ; Casadevall, Arturo ; Cunningham, Kyle W. ; Pineda, Fernando J. ; Teng, Xinchen ; Hardwick, J. MarieUnicellular eukaryotes have been suggested as undergoing self-inflicted destruction. However, molecular details are sparse compared with the mechanisms of programmed/regulated cell death known for human cells and animal models. Here, we report a molecular cell death pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leading to vacuole/lysosome membrane permeabilization. Following a transient cell death stimulus, yeast cells die slowly over several hours, consistent with an ongoing molecular dying process. A genome-wide screen for death-promoting factors identified all subunits of the AP-3 complex, a vesicle trafficking adapter known to transport and install newly synthesized proteins on the vacuole/lysosome membrane. To promote cell death, AP-3 requires its Arf1-GTPase-dependent vesicle trafficking function and the kinase Yck3, which is selectively transported to the vacuole membrane by AP-3. Video microscopy revealed a sequence of events where vacuole permeability precedes the loss of plasma membrane integrity. AP-3-dependent death appears to be conserved in the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans.
ArticleExposure to hypoxia rapidly induces mitochondrial channel activity within a living synapse(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2004-11-23) Jonas, Elizabeth A. ; Hickman, John A. ; Hardwick, J. Marie ; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.One of the earliest effects of hypoxia on neuronal function is to produce a run-down of synaptic transmission, and more prolonged hypoxia results in neuronal death. An increase in the permeability of the outer mitochondrial membrane, controlled by BCL-2 family proteins, occurs in response to stimuli that trigger cell death. By patch clamping mitochondrial membranes inside the presynaptic terminal of a squid giant synapse, we have now found that several minutes of hypoxia trigger the opening of large multiconductance channels. The channel activity is induced concurrently with the attenuation of synaptic responses that occurs under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia-induced channels are inhibited by NADH, an agent that inhibits large conductance channels produced by a pro-apoptotic fragment of BCL-xL in these synaptic mitochondria. The appearance of hypoxia-induced channels was also prevented by the caspase/cysteine protease inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-fmk), which inhibits proteolysis of BCL-xL during hypoxia. Both NADH and Z-VAD-fmk reduced significantly the rate of decline of synaptic responses during hypoxia. Our results indicate that an increase in outer mitochondrial channel activity is a very early event in the response of neurons to hypoxia and suggest that this increase in activity may contribute to the decline in synaptic function during hypoxia.