Tzortziou Maria

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  • Article
    The United States' next generation of atmospheric composition and coastal ecosystem measurements : NASA's Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission
    (American Meteorological Society, 2012-10) Fishman, J. ; Iraci, L. T. ; Al-Saadi, J. ; Chance, K. ; Chavez, Francisco P. ; Chin, M. ; Coble, Paula G. ; Davis, Curtiss O. ; DiGiacomo, P. M. ; Edwards, D. ; Eldering, A. ; Goes, Joachim I. ; Herman, J. ; Hu, Chuanmin ; Jacob, Daniel J. ; Jordan, C. ; Kawa, S. Randolph ; Key, R. ; Liu, X. ; Lohrenz, Steven E. ; Mannino, Antonio ; Natraj, V. ; Neil, D. ; Neu, J. ; Newchurch, M. J. ; Pickering, K. ; Salisbury, Joseph E. ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Subramaniam, A. ; Tzortziou, Maria ; Wang, Jian ; Wang, M.
    The Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission was recommended by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Earth Science Decadal Survey to measure tropospheric trace gases and aerosols and coastal ocean phytoplankton, water quality, and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit, providing continuous observations within the field of view. To fulfill the mandate and address the challenge put forth by the NRC, two GEO-CAPE Science Working Groups (SWGs), representing the atmospheric composition and ocean color disciplines, have developed realistic science objectives using input drawn from several community workshops. The GEO-CAPE mission will take advantage of this revolutionary advance in temporal frequency for both of these disciplines. Multiple observations per day are required to explore the physical, chemical, and dynamical processes that determine tropospheric composition and air quality over spatial scales ranging from urban to continental, and over temporal scales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. Likewise, high-frequency satellite observations are critical to studying and quantifying biological, chemical, and physical processes within the coastal ocean. These observations are to be achieved from a vantage point near 95°–100°W, providing a complete view of North America as well as the adjacent oceans. The SWGs have also endorsed the concept of phased implementation using commercial satellites to reduce mission risk and cost. GEO-CAPE will join the global constellation of geostationary atmospheric chemistry and coastal ocean color sensors planned to be in orbit in the 2020 time frame.
  • Article
    Representing the function and sensitivity of coastal interfaces in earth system models
    (Nature Research, 2020-05-18) Ward, Nicholas D. ; Megonigal, J. Patrick ; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin ; Bailey, Vanessa L. ; Butman, David ; Canuel, Elizabeth A. ; Diefenderfer, Heida ; Ganju, Neil K. ; Goni, Miguel ; Graham, Emily B. ; Hopkinson, Charles S. ; Khangaonkar, Tarang ; Langley, J. Adam ; McDowell, Nate G. ; Myers-Pigg, Allison N. ; Neumann, Rebecca B. ; Osburn, Christopher L. ; Price, René M. ; Rowland, Joel ; Sengupta, Aditi ; Simard, Marc ; Thornton, Peter E. ; Tzortziou, Maria ; Vargas, Rodrigo ; Weisenhorn, Pamela B. ; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie
    Between the land and ocean, diverse coastal ecosystems transform, store, and transport material. Across these interfaces, the dynamic exchange of energy and matter is driven by hydrological and hydrodynamic processes such as river and groundwater discharge, tides, waves, and storms. These dynamics regulate ecosystem functions and Earth’s climate, yet global models lack representation of coastal processes and related feedbacks, impeding their predictions of coastal and global responses to change. Here, we assess existing coastal monitoring networks and regional models, existing challenges in these efforts, and recommend a path towards development of global models that more robustly reflect the coastal interface.
  • Article
    Satellite sensor requirements for monitoring essential biodiversity variables of coastal ecosystems
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-03-06) Muller-Karger, Frank E. ; Hestir, Erin ; Ade, Christiana ; Turpie, Kevin ; Roberts, Dar A. ; Siegel, David A. ; Miller, Robert J. ; Humm, David ; Izenberg, Noam ; Keller, Mary ; Morgan, Frank ; Frouin, Robert ; Dekker, Arnold G. ; Gardner, Royal ; Goodman, James ; Schaeffer, Blake ; Franz, Bryan A. ; Pahlevan, Nima ; Mannino, Antonio ; Concha, Javier A. ; Ackleson, Steven G. ; Cavanaugh, Kyle C. ; Romanou, Anastasia ; Tzortziou, Maria ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Pavlick, Ryan ; Freeman, Anthony ; Rousseaux, Cecile S. ; Dunne, John P. ; Long, Matthew C. ; Salas, Eduardo Klein ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Goes, Joachim I. ; Letelier, Ricardo M. ; Kavanaugh, Maria T. ; Roffer, Mitchell ; Bracher, Astrid ; Arrigo, Kevin R. ; Dierssen, Heidi M. ; Zhang, Xiaodong ; Davis, Frank W. ; Best, Benjamin D. ; Guralnick, Robert P. ; Moisan, John R. ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Kudela, Raphael M. ; Mouw, Colleen B. ; Barnard, Andrew H. ; Palacios, Sherry ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Drakou, Evangelia G. ; Appeltans, Ward ; Jetz, Walter
    The biodiversity and high productivity of coastal terrestrial and aquatic habitats are the foundation for important benefits to human societies around the world. These globally distributed habitats need frequent and broad systematic assessments, but field surveys only cover a small fraction of these areas. Satellite‐based sensors can repeatedly record the visible and near‐infrared reflectance spectra that contain the absorption, scattering, and fluorescence signatures of functional phytoplankton groups, colored dissolved matter, and particulate matter near the surface ocean, and of biologically structured habitats (floating and emergent vegetation, benthic habitats like coral, seagrass, and algae). These measures can be incorporated into Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs), including the distribution, abundance, and traits of groups of species populations, and used to evaluate habitat fragmentation. However, current and planned satellites are not designed to observe the EBVs that change rapidly with extreme tides, salinity, temperatures, storms, pollution, or physical habitat destruction over scales relevant to human activity. Making these observations requires a new generation of satellite sensors able to sample with these combined characteristics: (1) spatial resolution on the order of 30 to 100‐m pixels or smaller; (2) spectral resolution on the order of 5 nm in the visible and 10 nm in the short‐wave infrared spectrum (or at least two or more bands at 1,030, 1,240, 1,630, 2,125, and/or 2,260 nm) for atmospheric correction and aquatic and vegetation assessments; (3) radiometric quality with signal to noise ratios (SNR) above 800 (relative to signal levels typical of the open ocean), 14‐bit digitization, absolute radiometric calibration <2%, relative calibration of 0.2%, polarization sensitivity <1%, high radiometric stability and linearity, and operations designed to minimize sunglint; and (4) temporal resolution of hours to days. We refer to these combined specifications as H4 imaging. Enabling H4 imaging is vital for the conservation and management of global biodiversity and ecosystem services, including food provisioning and water security. An agile satellite in a 3‐d repeat low‐Earth orbit could sample 30‐km swath images of several hundred coastal habitats daily. Nine H4 satellites would provide weekly coverage of global coastal zones. Such satellite constellations are now feasible and are used in various applications.
  • Article
    Carbon budget of tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters of eastern North America
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-04-04) Najjar, Raymond G. ; Herrmann, Maria ; Alexander, Richard ; Boyer, Elizabeth W. ; Burdige, David J. ; Butman, David ; Cai, Wei-Jun ; Canuel, Elizabeth A. ; Chen, Robert F. ; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M. ; Feagin, Russell A. ; Griffith, Peter C. ; Hinson, Audra L. ; Holmquist, James R. ; Hu, Xinping ; Kemp, William M. ; Kroeger, Kevin D. ; Mannino, Antonio ; McCallister, S. Leigh ; McGillis, Wade R. ; Mulholland, Margaret R. ; Pilskaln, Cynthia H. ; Salisbury, Joseph E. ; Signorini, Sergio R. ; St-Laurent, Pierre ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tzortziou, Maria ; Vlahos, Penny ; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck ; Zimmerman, Richard C.
    Carbon cycling in the coastal zone affects global carbon budgets and is critical for understanding the urgent issues of hypoxia, acidification, and tidal wetland loss. However, there are no regional carbon budgets spanning the three main ecosystems in coastal waters: tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters. Here we construct such a budget for eastern North America using historical data, empirical models, remote sensing algorithms, and process‐based models. Considering the net fluxes of total carbon at the domain boundaries, 59 ± 12% (± 2 standard errors) of the carbon entering is from rivers and 41 ± 12% is from the atmosphere, while 80 ± 9% of the carbon leaving is exported to the open ocean and 20 ± 9% is buried. Net lateral carbon transfers between the three main ecosystem types are comparable to fluxes at the domain boundaries. Each ecosystem type contributes substantially to exchange with the atmosphere, with CO2 uptake split evenly between tidal wetlands and shelf waters, and estuarine CO2 outgassing offsetting half of the uptake. Similarly, burial is about equal in tidal wetlands and shelf waters, while estuaries play a smaller but still substantial role. The importance of tidal wetlands and estuaries in the overall budget is remarkable given that they, respectively, make up only 2.4 and 8.9% of the study domain area. This study shows that coastal carbon budgets should explicitly include tidal wetlands, estuaries, shelf waters, and the linkages between them; ignoring any of them may produce a biased picture of coastal carbon cycling.