Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Miscellaneous OCB publications including outreach.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 14 of 14
  • Working Paper
    Building a Community of Biogeochemistry Float Data Users: an OCB and US CLIVAR Report
    (Woods Hole Oceangraphic Institution, 2023-04-04) Riser, Stephen C. ; Fassbender, Andrea J. ; Johnson, Kenneth S. ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Talley, Lynne D. ; Wijffels, Susan E. ; Hotinski, Roberta ; Gray, Alison R. ; Takeshita, Yuichiro ; Nicholson, David P. ; Purkey, Sarah G. ; Martz, Todd R. ; Matsumoto, George I. ; Cullen, Heidi
    The Global Ocean Biogeochemistry (GO-BGC) array is a 5-year effort funded by the US National Science Foundation to produce and deploy 500 profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors in the world ocean. Deployments began in the first quarter of 2021. To inform and engage a broad oceanographic user community, the Ocean Carbon & Biogeochemistry (OCB) and the US Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Programs worked with GO-BGC leadership to host a virtual GO-BGC Scientific Workshop from June 28-30, 2021. The objectives of the workshop were to: • Introduce the GO-BGC plan to the global scientific community • Discuss and innovate on scientific applications of GO-BGC data • Provide background information on the flow of data and archiving • Deliver hands-on tutorials and computer code for accessing GO-BGC data Presentations and discussions were scheduled for 3-4 hours on each day using the Zoom platform. Some pre-recorded presentations were available online prior to each day’s events, so that participants could consider discussion items before the meeting. A Slack channel was also created prior to the meeting so that participants could communicate with organizers, presenters, and other attendees during the event.
  • Working Paper
    US National BioGeoSCAPES Workshop Report
    (Woods Hole Oceangraphic Institution, 2023-01-09) Twining, Benjamin S. ; Saito, Mak A. ; Santoro, Alyson E. ; Marchetti, Adrian ; Levine, Naomi M.
    BioGeoSCAPES (BGS) is an international program being developed to understand controls on ocean productivity and metabolism by integrating systems biology (‘omics) and biogeochemistry (Figure 1). To ensure global input into the design of the BGS Program, countries interested in participating were tasked with holding an organizing meeting to discuss the country-specific research priorities. A United States BGS planning meeting, sponsored by the Ocean Carbon & Biogeochemistry (OCB) Project Office, was convened virtually November 10-12, 2021. The objectives of the meeting were to communicate the planning underway by international partners, engage the US community to explore possible national contributions to such a program, and build understanding, support, and momentum for US efforts towards BGS. The meeting was well-attended, with 154 participants and many fruitful discussions that are summarized in this document. Key outcomes from the meeting were the identification of additional programs and partners for BGS, a prioritization of measurements requiring intercalibration, and the development of a consensus around key considerations to be addressed in a science plan. Looking forward, the hope is that this workshop will serve as the foundation for future US and international discussions and planning for a BGS program, enabled by NSF funding for an AccelNet project (AccelNet - Implementation: Development of an International Network for the Study of Ocean Metabolism and Nutrient Cycles on a Changing Planet (BioGeoSCAPES)), beginning in 2022.
  • Working Paper
    Roadmap Towards Communitywide Intercalibration and Standardization of Ocean Nucleic Acids ‘Omics Measurements
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2022-03) Berube, Paul M. ; Gifford, Scott M. ; Hurwitz, Bonnie ; Jenkins, Bethany D. ; Marchetti, Adrian ; Santoro, Alyson E.
    In January 2020, the US Ocean Carbon & Biogeochemistry (OCB) Project Office funded the Ocean Nucleic Acids 'omics Intercalibration and Standardization workshop held at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill. Thirty-two participants from across the US, along with guests from Canada and France, met to develop a framework for standardization and intercalibration (S&I) of ocean nucleic acid ‘omics (na’omics) approaches (i.e., amplicon sequencing, metagenomics and metatranscriptomics). During the three-day workshop, participants discussed numerous topics, including: a) sample biomass collection and nucleic acid preservation for downstream analysis, b) extraction protocols for nucleic acids, c) addition of standard reference material to nucleic acid isolation protocols, d) isolation methods unique to RNA, e) sequence library construction, and f ) integration of bioinformatic considerations. This report provides a summary of these and other topics covered during the workshop and a series of recommendations for future S&I activities for na’omics approaches.
  • Working Paper
    US SOLAS Science Report
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-12) Stanley, Rachel H. R. ; Bell, Tom G. ; Gao, Yuan ; Gaston, Cassandra J. ; Ho, David T. ; Kieber, David J. ; Mackey, Katherine R. M. ; Meskhidze, Nicholas ; Miller, William L. ; Potter, Henry ; Vlahos, Penny ; Yager, Patricia L. ; Alexander, Becky ; Beaupre, Steven R. ; Craig, Susanne E. ; Cutter, Gregory A. ; Emerson, Steven ; Frossard, Amanda A. ; Gasso, Santiago ; Haus, Brian K. ; Keene, William C. ; Landing, William M. ; Moore, Richard H. ; Ortiz-Suslow, David ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Paulot, Fabien ; Saltzman, Eric ; Thornton, Daniel ; Wozniak, Andrew S. ; Zamora, Lauren M. ; Benway, Heather M.
    The Surface Ocean – Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) (http://www.solas-int.org/) is an international research initiative focused on understanding the key biogeochemical-physical interactions and feedbacks between the ocean and atmosphere that are critical elements of climate and global biogeochemical cycles. Following the release of the SOLAS Decadal Science Plan (2015-2025) (Brévière et al., 2016), the Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Committee (OAIC) was formed as a subcommittee of the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Scientific Steering Committee to coordinate US SOLAS efforts and activities, facilitate interactions among atmospheric and ocean scientists, and strengthen US contributions to international SOLAS. In October 2019, with support from OCB, the OAIC convened an open community workshop, Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions: Scoping directions for new research with the goal of fostering new collaborations and identifying knowledge gaps and high-priority science questions to formulate a US SOLAS Science Plan. Based on presentations and discussions at the workshop, the OAIC and workshop participants have developed this US SOLAS Science Plan. The first part of the workshop and this Science Plan were purposefully designed around the five themes of the SOLAS Decadal Science Plan (2015-2025) (Brévière et al., 2016) to provide a common set of research priorities and ensure a more cohesive US contribution to international SOLAS.
  • Working Paper
    Standards and practices for reporting plankton and other particle observations from images
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-07-26) Neeley, Aimee ; Beaulieu, Stace E. ; Proctor, Chris ; Cetinić, Ivona ; Futrelle, Joe ; Soto Ramos, Inia ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Devred, Emmanuel ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Picheral, Marc ; Poulton, Nicole ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Shepherd, Adam
    This technical manual guides the user through the process of creating a data table for the submission of taxonomic and morphological information for plankton and other particles from images to a repository. Guidance is provided to produce documentation that should accompany the submission of plankton and other particle data to a repository, describes data collection and processing techniques, and outlines the creation of a data file. Field names include scientificName that represents the lowest level taxonomic classification (e.g., genus if not certain of species, family if not certain of genus) and scientificNameID, the unique identifier from a reference database such as the World Register of Marine Species or AlgaeBase. The data table described here includes the field names associatedMedia, scientificName/ scientificNameID for both automated and manual identification, biovolume, area_cross_section, length_representation and width_representation. Additional steps that instruct the user on how to format their data for a submission to the Ocean Biodiversity Information System (OBIS) are also included. Examples of documentation and data files are provided for the user to follow. The documentation requirements and data table format are approved by both NASA’s SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) and the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO).
  • Working Paper
    NSF EarthCube Workshop for Shipboard Ocean Time Series Data Meeting Report
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-02) Benway, Heather M. ; Buck, Justin J. H. ; Fujieki, Lance ; Kinkade, Danie ; Lorenzoni, Laura ; Schildhauer, Mark ; Shepherd, Adam ; White, Angelicque
    Prior to the OceanObs’19 Meeting, the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Project Office planned and hosted an NSF EarthCube Workshop focused on shipboard ocean time series data (https://www.us-ocb.org/earthcube-workshop-ocean-time-series-data/). Data synthesis and modeling efforts across ocean time series represent important and necessary steps forward in broadening our view of a changing ocean, and maximizing the return on our continued investment in these programs. Despite the scientific insights and technology advances of the past couple of decades, significant barriers remain that hinder important synthesis work across time series. This workshop convened 37 participants, including seagoing oceanographers, data managers, and experts in data science and informatics. The goal of the workshop was to identify key ocean time series data challenges related to access and discoverability, metadata reporting, interoperability across databases, and broadening users; and developing recommendations to address those challenges. The workshop adopted the FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable; Wilkinson et al., 2016) Guiding Principles to frame these issues, and included presentations on existing data models and use of controlled vocabularies, guidelines and frameworks for conducting data synthesis and establishing community best practices, and existing and planned ocean time series data products.
  • Working Paper
    Review of US GO-SHIP (Global Oceans Shipboard Hydrographic Investigations Program) An OCB and US CLIVAR Report
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2019-10) Bingham, Frederick ; Juranek, Laurie W. ; Mazloff, Matthew R. ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Nelson, Norman B. ; Wijffels, Susan E.
    The following document constitutes a review of the US GO-SHIP program, performed under the auspices of US Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) and Ocean Carbon Biogeochemistry (OCB) Programs. It is the product of an external review committee, charged and assembled by US CLIVAR and OCB with members who represent the interests of the programs and who are independent of US GO-SHIP support, which spent several months gathering input and drafting this report. The purpose of the review is to assess program planning, progress, and opportunities in collecting, providing, and synthesizing high quality hydrographic data to advance the scientific research goals of US CLIVAR and OCB.
  • Working Paper
    Synthesis and Intercomparison of Ocean Carbon Uptake in CMIP6 Models workshop report, December 8-9, 2018 Washington, DC
    ( 2019-04) Dunne, John P. ; Romanou, Anastasia ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Long, Matthew C. ; Doney, Scott C.
    From the Introduction: This workshop served as an important opportunity to improve communication between ocean carbon cycle scientists, both across sub-disciplines centering on observations, theory, models, and synthesis, and across career levels from graduate student to senior scientist. Participants shared questions, knowledge, and perceived challenges on the weaknesses of CMIP5 and CMIP6 models, potential observational constraints, and emerging theory. The workshop provided many opportunities for the development of collaborative project ideas through oral, poster, and moderated group discussion sessions, with a major emphasis on the upcoming December 2019 manuscript submission deadline to contribute to the IPCC Sixth Assessment. Participants also provided feedback to modeling centers on novel ways to push this community and the models forward, thinking beyond the currently planned suite of CMIP6 modeling activities.
  • Working Paper
    United States contributions to the Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (US IIOE-2)
    (US Steering Committee, 2018-10-23) Hood, Raleigh R. ; Beal, Lisa M. ; Benway, Heather M. ; Chandler, Cynthia L. ; Coles, Victoria J. ; Cutter, Gregory A. ; Dick, Henry J. B. ; Gangopadhyay, Avijit ; Goes, Joachim I. ; Humphris, Susan E. ; Landry, Michael R. ; Lloyd, Karen G. ; McPhaden, Michael J. ; Murtugudde, Raghu ; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu ; Susanto, R. Dwi ; Talley, Lynne D. ; Wiggert, Jerry D. ; Zhang, Chidong
    From the Preface: The purpose of this document is to motivate and coordinate U.S. participation in the Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2) by outlining a core set of research priorities that will accelerate our understanding of geologic, oceanic, and atmospheric processes and their interactions in the Indian Ocean. These research priorities have been developed by the U.S. IIOE-2 Steering Committee based on the outcomes of an interdisciplinary Indian Ocean science workshop held at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography on September 11-13, 2017. The workshop was attended by 70 scientists with expertise spanning climate, atmospheric sciences, and multiple sub-disciplines of oceanography. Workshop participants were largely drawn from U.S. academic institutions and government agencies, with a few experts invited from India, China, and France to provide a broader perspective on international programs and activities and opportunities for collaboration. These research priorities also build upon the previously developed International IIOE-2 Science Plan and Implementation Strategy. Outcomes from the workshop are condensed into five scientific themes: Upwelling, inter-ocean exchanges, monsoon dynamics, inter-basin contrasts, marine geology and the deep ocean. Each theme is identified with priority questions that the U.S. research community would like to address and the measurements that need to be made in the Indian Ocean to address them.
  • Book
    Towards a transformative understanding of the ocean’s biological pump: Priorities for future research - Report on the NSF Biology of the Biological Pump Workshop
    (Ocean Carbon & Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program, 2016-08-24) Burd, Adrian B. ; Buchan, Alison ; Church, Matthew J. ; Landry, Michael R. ; McDonnell, Andrew M. P. ; Passow, Uta ; Steinberg, Deborah K. ; Benway, Heather M.
    The net transfer of organic matter from the surface to the deep ocean is a key function of ocean food webs. The combination of biological, physical, and chemical processes that contribute to and control this export is collectively known as the “biological pump”, and current estimates of the global magnitude of this export range from 5 – 12 Pg C yr-1. This material can be exported in dissolved or particulate form, and many of the biological processes that regulate the composition, quantity, timing, and distribution of this export are poorly understood or constrained. Export of organic material is of fundamental importance to the biological and chemical functioning of the ocean, supporting deep ocean food webs and controlling the vertical and horizontal segregation of elements throughout the ocean. Remineralization of exported organic matter in the upper mesopelagic zone provides nutrients for surface production, while material exported to depths of 1000 m or more is generally considered to be sequestered — i.e. out of contact with the atmosphere for centuries or longer. The ability to accurately model a system is a reflection of the degree to which the system is understood. In the case of export, semi-empirical and simple mechanistic models show a wide range of predictive skill. This is, in part, due to the sparseness of available data, which impedes our inability to accurately represent, or even include, all relevant processes (sometimes for legitimate computational reasons). Predictions will remain uncertain without improved understanding and parameterization of key biological processes affecting export.
  • Book
    Report on the “Trait-based approaches to ocean life” scoping workshop, October 5-8, 2015
    (Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program, 2016-05) Barton, Andrew D. ; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie ; Andersen, Ken H. ; Fiksen, Øyvind Ø. F. ; Follows, Michael J. ; Mouw, Colleen B. ; Record, Nicholas R. ; Rynearson, Tatiana A.
    From the introduction: Marine ecosystems are rich and biodiverse, often populated by thousands of competing and interacting species with a vast range of behaviors, forms, and life histories. This great ecological complexity presents a formidable challenge to understanding how marine ecosystems are structured and controlled, but also how they respond to natural and anthropogenic changes. The trait-based approach to ocean life is emerging as a novel framework for understanding the complexity, structure, and dynamics of marine ecosystems, but also their broader significance. Rather than considering species individually, organisms are characterized by essential traits that capture key aspects of diversity. Trait distributions in the ocean emerge through evolution and natural selection, and are mediated by the environment, biological interactions, anthropogenic drivers, and organism behavior. Because trait variations within and across communities lead to variation in the rates of crucial ecosystem functions such as carbon export, this mechanistic approach sheds light on how variability in the environment, including climate change, impacts marine ecosystems, biogeochemical cycles, and associated feedbacks to climate and society.
  • Presentation
    Temporal and spatial perspectives on the fate of anthropogenic carbon : a carbon cycle slide deck for broad audiences
    (Ocean Carbon & Biogeochemistry Program, 2015-12-08) Khatiwala, Samar ; DeVries, Timothy ; Cook, Jack ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Carlson, Craig A. ; Benway, Heather M.
    This slide deck was developed to inform broader scientific, as well as general audiences about the role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle, including key sinks and sources of anthropogenic carbon and how they have evolved through time and space.
  • Working Paper
    A science plan for carbon cycle research in North American coastal waters. Report of the Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) community workshop, August 19-21, 2014
    (Ocean Carbon & Biogeochemistry Program, 2016) Benway, Heather M. ; Alin, Simone R. ; Boyer, Elizabeth ; Cai, Wei-Jun ; Coble, Paula G. ; Cross, Jessica N. ; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M. ; Goni, Miguel ; Griffith, Peter C. ; Herrmann, Maria ; Lohrenz, Steven E. ; Mathis, Jeremy T. ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Najjar, Raymond G. ; Pilskaln, Cynthia H. ; Siedlecki, Samantha A. ; Smith, Richard A.
    Relative to their surface area, continental margins represent some of the largest carbon fluxes in the global ocean, but sparse and sporadic sampling in space and time makes these systems difficult to characterize and quantify. Recognizing the importance of continental margins to the overall North American carbon budget, terrestrial and marine carbon cycle scientists have been collaborating on a series of synthesis, carbon budgeting, and modeling exercises for coastal regions of North America, which include the Gulf of Mexico, the Laurentian Great Lakes (LGL), and the coastal waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans. The Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) workshops and research activities have been conducted over the past several years as a partner activity between the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program and the North American Carbon Program (NACP) to synthesize existing data and improve quantitative assessments of the North American carbon budget.
  • Working Paper
    A science plan for a collaborative international research program on the coupled North Atlantic-Arctic system, a report of a Planning Workshop for an International Research Program on the Coupled North Atlantic-Arctic System developed from a workshop held in Arlington, VA 14-16 April 2014
    (Ocean Carbon & Biogeochemistry Program, 2015) Hofmann, Eileen E. ; St. John, Mike ; Benway, Heather M.
    This North Atlantic-Arctic science plan is derived from an international workshop held in April 2014 with support from the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences and the European Union (EU). The workshop was designed to facilitate development of a core vision for advancing the next phase of research on the North Atlantic-Arctic system and strengthening international collaborations within and between the EU and North America.