Digital Books

Permanent URI for this collection

This collection is an assortment of manuals and texts reproduced by the MBLWHOI Library with permission of the copyright owners.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 22
  • Book
    Georges Bank
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1987) Backus, Richard H.
    Georges Bank provides a basic and indispensable reference tool for anyone involved in studying the bank or in making decisions about its use. Until now debates about alternative uses of the bank have been hampered by the fact that much of the basic research has been available only to specialists and has been scattered among many publications. In bringing the available information on this complex region together for the first time, Georges Bank provides a basic and indispensable reference tool for anyone involved in studying the bank or in making decisions about its use. Moreover, the depth and clarity of the book's 57 articles and 8 nontechnical introductions will make it useful for anyone involved in oceanographic or ocean policy studies.Sections cover all aspects of this huge marine ecosystem - geology, weather and climate, physical oceanography, chemistry, phytoplankton, primary production, zoology and secondary production, the fisheries, and conflicting uses. Georges Bank is the first major project of the Coastal Research Center of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The editor-in-chief, Richard H. Backus, is chairman of the Institutions's biology department. Includes 176 six-color maps, 54 four-color illustrations - 392 charts, graphs, and drawings.
  • Technical Report
    Warm Core Ring Project 12-29 June, 1982
    (Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, 1984-01) Phinney, David A. ; Garside, Jean C. ; Langton, Elizabeth W.
    The main objective of the third warm core ring cruise was revisitation of ring 82-B and the surrounding water masses. Located off the Baltimore Canyon, 82-B continued to be \vell suited to the program. With activities aboard the three ships now well coordinated, the mobility of R/V Knorr continued to increase. Two cross section transects of the ring as well as Slope water, Gulf Stream and Sargasso Sea stations were occupied. Our interests are concerned with measuring the bio-optical properties of rings and surrounding water masses .in support of remote sensing. This is the third in a series of technical reports produced by Bigelow Laboratory in the present format as part of the Warm Core Rings Project.
  • Technical Report
    Warm Core Ring Project 19 April - 6 May, 1982
    (Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, 1983-12) Phinney, David A. ; Langton, Elizabeth W. ; Garside, Jean C.
    The second cruise of the Warm Core Rings program marks the beginning of an intensive season of field study. Again, our interests are primarily concerned with measuring the bio-optical properties of rings and surrounding water masses. Through our observations of the horizontal and vertical distributions of phytoplankton and their pigments concurrent with observations of the submarine light field, we attempt to further our understanding of the relationship between light and photosynthetic organisms in the sea, and our ability to remotely sense them. Several modifications to the main objectives of the program's field efforts, from those of October 1981, are to be noted. Studies of ring 81-D in October 1981 was the first attempt for many investigators to make measurements in the unique environment of a warm core ring. As the likelihood of the ring surviving until the following field season was slim, no attempt was made to revisit the ring. Physical measurements were made from a constantly mobile platform, R/V Endeavor, while the biological platform, R/V Atlantis II, sat on station for days. Biological measurements ~vere spatially divided into three sub-areas: slope water, ring center, and the high velocity region.With our feet wet, the strategy was now to select a ring that would be long lived, such that it could be revisited several times during the field season. lfhile the physical measurements were being made in much the same fashion from R/V Endeavor, biologists were split among R/V Knorr and R/V Oceanus, with a resultant increase in mobility. Finally, measurements of the surrounding water masses grew to include the Gulf Stream and Sargasso Sea.
  • Technical Report
    Warm Core Ring Project 17 Sept. - 7 Oct., 1981
    (Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, 1983-02) Langton, Elizabeth W. ; Phinney, David A.
  • Book
    Atlantic Ocean atlas of temperature and salinity profiles and data from the International Geophysical Year of 1957-1958
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1960) Fuglister, Frederick C.
    From the Preface: Within the framework of the observational program in physical oceanography which was executed during the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58, the WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, in partial association with the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY, England, performed a methodical oceanographic survey covering most of the Atlantic Ocean. Supplemented with similar observations made in the western North Atlantic just prior to the IGY, the data obtained constitute a comprehensive new body of information pertaining to the circulation of the entire Atlantic. To summarize many of the observations in a particularly useful and efficient manner, as well as to perform a fundamental analysis upon them, the following atlas of Atlantic thermohaline structure has been prepared. Although distributions of other properties measured on these cruises might also have been depicted in this volume, it was felt that a more coherent and serviceable atlas would be produced if attention were concentrated exclusively upon temperature and salinity; the measurements of these two variables, moreover, are of consistent quality, since they were all made by a single small research group employing the same techniques and equipment throughout the survey period.
  • Book
    Anatomie menschlicher Embryonen. I. Embryonen des ersten Monats
    (Verlag von F. C. W. Vogel, 1880) His, Wilhelm
  • Book
    The development of the frog's egg : an introduction to experimental embryology
    (Macmillan Company, 1897) Morgan, Thomas Hunt
    From the Preface: The development of the frog's egg was first made known through the studies of Swammerdam, Spallanzani, Rusconi, and von Baer. Their work laid the basis for all later research. More recently the experiments of Pfluger and of Roux on this egg have turned the attention of embryologists to the study of development from an experimental standpoint. Owing to the ease with which the frog's egg can be obtained, and its tenacity of life in a confined space, as well as its suitability for experimental work, it is an admirable subject with which to begin the study of vertebrate development. In the following pages an attempt is made to bring together the most important results of studies of the development of the frog's egg. I have attempted to give a continuous account of the development, as far as that is possible, from the time when the egg is forming to the moment when the young tadpole issues from the jelly-membranes. Especial weight has been laid on the results of experimental work, in the belief that the evidence from this source is the most instructive for an interpretation of the development. The evidence from the study of the normal development has, however, not been neglected, and wherever it has been possible I have attempted to combine the results of experiment and of observation, with the hope of more fully elucidating the changes that take place. Occasionally departures have been made from the immediate subject in hand in order to consider the results of other work having a close bearing on the problem under discussion. I have done this in the hope of pointing out more definite conclusions than could be drawn from the evidence of the frog's egg alone.
  • Book
    The tides of the waters of New England and New York
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1980) Redfield, Alfred C.
    From the Preface: This book is written for the many intelligent people who work or play along the coast between Sandy Hook and the Bay of Fundy in the hope that it will give them a better understanding of matters which greatly influence the daily ordering of their activities. It may be of value to the serious student of the tides, at the beginning as an introduction to tidal theory and later as a summary of the tides on this particular coast. The stretch of coast considered and the off-lying ocean contain examples of practically all known tidal phenomena. The book is based for the most part on information given in the tide and current tables published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, formerly the Coast and Geodetic Survey. It is not intended to replace these tables if one would know what to expect at any particular place on any particular day. Rather, it attempts to explain why the tide locally is as it is and why it varies from place to place.
  • Book
    The Starbuck essays of Henry Stommel
    (Friends Of Starbuck, 1992) Stommel, Henry M.
    From the Forward: These essays appeared from time to time over a number of years in The Enterprise, the community newspaper of Falmouth, Massachusetts. I first encountered "Starbuck" as a youthful editor some forty years ago. We were early in the cold war. We were in the McCarthy era. Inspired by McCarthy, persons ambitious for attention were going about the country discovering Communists. One of these Paul Reveres of the cold war came to address some gathering on Cape Cod and announced to a startled audience that there were-he knew for a fact-a thousand or more dedicated Communists living on Cape Cod. A thrill of excitement ran through that part of the community that enjoyed alarms and nourished the idea that there were Russian spies everywhere in the land. Kicking around the newspaper office was a Rotary Club handbook that listed the members of the several Rotary clubs on the Cape. I counted the names. They added up to a couple of hundred. So I ran an editorial saying that there seemed to be more Communists than Rotarians on Cape Cod. It was the sort of appeal to the ridiculous that delighted Hank Stommel, and a day or so later he came to me with an appreciative note that was signed "Starbuck." I regret the note isn't preserved. I remember that it was amusing and to the point and that I wished that I had written it. I had met Hank Stommel, but I did not yet know him. That was the star. Encouraged, I like to think, by my appreciation, the "Starbuck" letters began to arrive at The Enterprise offce. These letters, which I correctly called essays, speak wonderfully for themselves. Reading the "Starbuck" letters will suggest the pleasure of spending a sociable evening with Hank Stommel over beer and fresh-shucked oysters. I can hear his laughter now.
  • Book
    The embryology of Crepidula : a contribution to the cell lineage and early development of some marine gasteropods
    (Ginn & Company, 1897) Conklin, Edwin Grant
    From the introduction: The purpose of the following work from its inception has been to make as careful a study as possible of the cleavage of the ovum, the formation of the germinal layers and definitive organs, and the axial relations of the ovum to the larval and adult axes. At the time when this work was begun, several years ago, scarcely any attempts had been made to trace the history of individual blastomeres through the entire development to the formation of definitive organs. The early stages of cleavage had received a great deal of attention, but the later stages had been largely neglected; and although the origin and homology of the germ layers was perhaps the most frequently discussed subject in embryology, yet the relation of these layers to the individual blastomeres of the cleaving ovum had been determined in comparatively few cases. Since that time a number of very valuable papers have appeared on this subject of “cell lineage,” as Wilson (‘92) has aptly termed it. The results of such work are no longer as novel as they were four or five years ago, and yet the general interest in the subject has greatly increased, and that, too, in spite of the fact that there is a growing school of biologists who believe that individual blastomeres have no necessary relation to future organs. The subject of germ layers is no longer so important as it was once considered; in fact, the theory of the homology of the germinal layers has met with so many difficulties of late that it is now generally maintained only in a greatly modified form. However, the fundamental idea which was prominent in germ-layer discussions is of vital interest to-day. In the whole history of the germ-layer theories I see an attempt to trace homologies back to their earliest beginnings. This problem is as important to-day as it ever was, and whether one find these earliest homologies in layers or regions or blastomeres or the unsegmented ovum itself, the quest is essentially the same.
  • Book
    Dinoflagellate contributions to the deep sea
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1992) Dale, Barrie ; Dale, Amy L. ; Honjo, Susumu
    For the first time, sediment trap samples from several depths in the deep sea were analyzed to estimate both the types and amounts of mineral contributed by dinoflagellates to the deep sea sediment flux. Thecal remains of dinoflagellate motile stages were almost entirely restricted to the upper few hundred meters of the water column, supporting the generally accepted explanation of their absence in the fossil record (i.e., theca are composed of cellulosic material which is destroyed before they may be incorporated into bottom sediments). The main contribution to the sediment flux is composed of resting cysts routinely produced in the life cycles of just a few of the more obscure oceanic dinoflagellates, probably species of Scrippsiella or Ensiculifera. The cyst assemblage sedimenting out from plankton at present is overwhelmingly dominated by a few small calcareous types (up to several thousands/m2/day). If not dissolved, these may accumulate in paleontologically significant amounts in bottom sediments to give the most representative fossil record of oceanic dinoflagellates. "Oceanic assemblages" of organic-walled cysts from Recent deep-sea sediments previously described by palynologists probably represent long distance transport from more coastal regions rather than oceanic dinoflagellate production.
  • Book
    Tintinnids : a taxon-vertical distributional study of settling assemblages from the Panama Basin
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1992) Ling, Hsin Yi ; Honjo, Susumu
    A series of samples collected in sediment traps deployed in the Panama Basin at various depths for 112 days were analyzed to examine the vertical flux of tintinnids, the trumpet-shaped ciliate protozoans. Tintinnids in the 63-250 pm size range reveal that: (1) faunal composition does not change significantly through the water column; (2) at approximately 1,200 m there is a slight increase with depth in the abundance of Codonellopsis, a lorica with a hyaline neck and an agglutinated bowl, and an associated slight decrease in the abundance of Rhabdonella, a lorica consisting entirely of a delicate hyaline nature; and (3) no apparent effect of dissolution was noticed in tintinnid specimens in sediment traps at all depths.
  • Book
    Radiolaria : flux, ecology, and taxonomy in the Pacific and Atlantic
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1991) Takahashi, Kozo ; Honjo, Susumu
    Radiolarians setting through the oceanic water column were recovered from three stations (western tropical Atlantic, Station E; central tropical Pacific, Station P1; and Panama Basin, Station PB) using PARFLUX sediment traps in moored arrays at several depths. The taxonomic diversity of the radiolarian assemblages in the sediment traps was very high. A total of 420 taxa (including 23 new taxa) were found at the three stations; of these 208 taxa were found at Station E. The polycystine radiolarians generally reach the sea floor with little change in abundance or species composition, although slight skeletal dissolution occurs during their descent through the water column. The phaeodarian radiolarians, on the other hand, are largely dissolved within the water column; only a few species reach the sea-floor and these dissolve rapidly at the sediment-water interface. Most radiolarian skeletons sink as individuals through deep water columns without being incorporated into large biogenic aggregates. Because significant numbers of nassellarian and phaeodarian species are deep-water dwelling forms, the diversity of radiolarians increases with increasing depth in the mesopelagic zone. The vertical flux of the total radiolarians arriving at the trap depths (in x 103 individuals/m2/day) ranged from 16-24 at Station E, 0.6-17 at Station Pl, and 29-53 at Station PB. On the average 25% and 69% of the total radiolarian flux is transported by Spumellaria and Nassellaria, respectively, while 5% is carried by Phaeodaria. The supply of radiolarian silica (mg Si02/m2/day) to each trap depth ranged from 2.5-4.0 at Station E, 0.9-3.2 at Station Pl, and 5.7-10.4 at Station PB. The Radiolaria appear to be a significantly large portion of the Si02 flux in the > 63 μm size fraction and thus play an important role in the silica cycle. When the radiolarian fluxes at the three stations are compared with Holocene radiolarian accumulation rates in the same areas it became apparent that several percent or less of the fluxes are preserved in the sediment in all cases and the rest must be dissolved on the sea-floor.
  • Book
    Silicoflagellates and Actiniscus : vertical fluxes at Pacific and Atlantic sediment trap stations
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1991) Takahashi, Kozo ; Honjo, Susumu
    Vertical fluxes of silicoflagellate skeletons were measured in meso- and bathypelagic zones at four PARFLUX sediment trap stations located in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The average flux measured at several depths ranged from 35 X 103 skeletons/m2/day at the Pacific gyre (P1) station to 424 X 103 skeletons/m2/day at the Panama Basin (PB1) station. The skeletal fluxes at these stations constituted a few weight percent or less of the total biogenic opal flux. The fluxes measured at Station P1, as well as the relative abundance of different assemblages, were fairly constant with depth. At Station PB1, while relative abundance of assemblages was constant with depth, the flux measured at mesopelagic depths was threefold greater than that in the bathypelagic zone. At equatorial Atlantic Station E a slight increase toward the bathypelagic zone is correlated with gradual change in the relative abundance of two predominant taxa, suggesting seasonality in the production of each taxa. Aggregate forms of vertical settling were observed at Station E; the number of skeletons in the aggregates was more than one-half of the total number in the mesopelagic zone and it decreased with increasing depth. The percent abundances of Dictyocha messanensis messanensis and Distephanus pulchra are correlated with organic carbon flux at four stations. Preservation of the skeletons in Holocene sediment at Station P1 is less than one percent of the silicoflagellate flux.
  • Book
    Calcareous nannoplankton biocoenosis : sediment trap studies in the equatorial Atlantic, central Pacific, and Panama Basin
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1991) Steinmetz, John C. ; Honjo, Susumu
    Sediment traps deployed on three moored vertical arrays collected particles at various depths in the equatorial Atlantic (Station E), central Pacific (Station P1), and in the Panama Basin (Station PB1). The calcareous nannoplankton from the <63 μm size fraction were studied in order to characterize the flux of coccospheres and coccoliths, the taxa present, and their condition of preservation throughout the water column. The average calculated flux of coccospheres ranged from a low value of 24 coccospheres/m2/day in the central Pacific, to an intermediate value of 4725 in the equatorial Atlantic, to a high of 8030 in the Panama Basin. In general, the coccosphere flux decreased with depth at all three sites. Coccolith fluxes and flux profiles were significantly different at each of the three sites. At Station E, the flux decreased regularly with depth but increased sharply at the lowermost trap (724 m above the bottom). The average flux for the entire column was 316 x 106 coccoliths/m2/day. At Station P1, the flux was low in the shallowest two traps and increased markedly in the three deepest traps. This increase is due mainly to a suspected Umbilcosphaera sibogae bloom which occurred shortly before the traps were deployed in September 1978. The highest coccolith flux was recorded in the Station PB1 traps averaging 910 x 10 6 coccoliths/m2/day. The flux profile at this station was essentially constant in the shallowest four traps and decreased almost 59% in the lowermost two traps. The average coccolith carbonate fluxes for the entire columns for the Stations E, P1, and PB1 are, respectively, 2.53, 2.68, and 7.28 mg/m2/day. These fluxes represent minimum values, since coccospheres and coccoliths were also contained in fecal pellets and other particles larger than the size fraction studied (<63 μm). Scanning electron microscopic examination of the trap samples revealed 56 species belonging to 33 genera of calcareous nannoplankton. Three new species are described and illustrated: Alsphaera spatula n. sp., Umbilcosphaera calvata n. sp., ari;d Umbilcosphaera scituloma n. sp. A census of taxa present, including their relative frequency and state of preservation, is presented together with a photographic atlas of the taxa. Station E is the most diverse with 50 species, and is the best preserved of the three sites. Station PBi the least diverse with 26 more poorly preserved species. In general, the best preserved specimens were observed in the shallowest sample at each of the three sites; diversity and state of preservation diminished with increasing depth.
  • Book
    Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos
    (Marine Biological Laboratory, 1971) Costello, Donald P. ; Henley, Catherine
    From the Preface: The Introduction to the first edition of this book (1957) (see page viii) stated that the volume was admittedly incomplete, and that new methods for obtaining, handling and studying marine eggs and embryos would undoubtedly be forthcoming. This prediction has been abundantly borne out in the intervening 14 years, and a complete revision of the book is clearly called for. A major re-writing is now (June, 1971) in progress. However, steadily continuing sales have resulted in the first edition going out of print, and it seemed advisable to re-issue it, with certain minor changes, as a stopgap measure, pending the major re-writing in progress. In the interim, it is appropriate here to point out some of the newer sources of information now available, and to note a few of the advances which have been made since 1957.
  • Book
    A guide to laboratory use of the squid Loligo pealei
    (Marine Biological Laboratory, 1974) Arnold, John M. ; Summers, William C. ; Gilbert, Daniel L. ; Manalis, Richard S. ; Daw, Nigel W. ; Lasek, Raymond J.
    From the Preface: Unfortunately, a guide like this one does not happen simply. It is the product of polite requests (at first polite, anyway) from colleagues, of mutual nagging, and of wives with persistant memories. What we are attempting to achieve with this contribution is a consolidation of many years of personal experience with squid into a source of practical information hopefully useful to the increasing number of people working with the squid. One does not undertake the task of preparing such a guide for a limited audience with unreserved enthusiasm. It always seems the same amount of work could produce something for a larger audience and therefore, hopefully, of greater significance. On the other hand when the hours and days spent on developing handling procedures, techniques, and "tricks of the squid trade" are considered it seems untenable not to pass this otherwise unpublishable data on in hope of saving others like pain and time. Therefore, what we have attempted to do is informally put together information that should prove useful to people interested in all aspects of squid biology. In this way we hope to make the laboratory utilization of the squid more efficient not only from the standpoint of the investigator and the collector but also for the future of the species Loligo pealei.
  • Book
    Notes on methods for the narcotization, killing, fixation, and preservation of marine organisms
    (Marine Biological Laboratory, 1963) Russell, Henry D.
    From the Foreward: An important activity of the Systematics-Ecology Program is the preparation of a study collection of the marine organisms of the Cape Cod region. Preparation of animal specimens requires careful narcotization, killing, fixation, and preservation.
  • Book
    An Arctic ecosystem : the coastal tundra at Barrow, Alaska
    (Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., 1980) Brown, Jerry ; Miller, Philip C. ; Tieszen, Larry L. ; Bunnell, Fred
    From the Foreward: This book is one of a series of volumes reporting results of research by U. S. scientists participating in the International Biological Program (IBP). As one of the 58 nations taking part in the IBP during the period July 1967 to June 1974 , the United States organized a number of large, multidisciplinary studies pertinent to the central IBP theme of "the biological basis of productivity and human welfare."
  • Book
    Oceanography : its scope, problems, and economic importance
    (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1931) Bigelow, Henry Bryant
    From the Foreward: This book is part of a report submitted to the National Academy of Sciences by its Committee on Oceanography appointed in accordance with the following resolution voted on April 27, 1927: 'That the President of the Academy be requested to appoint a Committee on Oceanography from the sections of the Academy concerned to consider the share of the United States of America in a world-wide program of Oceanographic Research and report to the Academy.' ... The book is an attempt to appraise the present condition of oceanographic research with reference to the more outstanding problems, so as to take bearings for future research.