Toward a new data standard for combined marine biological and environmental datasets - expanding OBIS beyond species occurrences

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De Pooter, Daphnis
Appeltans, Ward
Bailly, Nicolas
Bristol, Sky
Deneudt, Klaas
Eliezer, Menashè
Fujioka, Ei
Giorgetti, Alessandra
Goldstein, Philip
Lewis, Mirtha
Lipizer, Marina
Mackay, Kevin
Marin, Maria
Moncoiffe, Gwenaelle
Nikolopoulou, Stamatina
Provoost, Pieter
Rauch, Shannon
Roubicek, Andres
Torres, Carlos
van de Putte, Anton
Vandepitte, Leen
Vanhoorne, Bart
Vinci, Matteo
Wambiji, Nina
Watts, David
Salas, Eduardo Klein
Hernandez, Francisco
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Darwin Core Archive
Sample event
Species occurrence
Environmental data
Ecosystem data
Telemetry data
Data standardisation
Oceanographic data
The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) is the world’s most comprehensive online, open-access database of marine species distributions. OBIS grows with millions of new species observations every year. Contributions come from a network of hundreds of institutions, projects and individuals with common goals: to build a scientific knowledge base that is open to the public for scientific discovery and exploration and to detect trends and changes that inform society as essential elements in conservation management and sustainable development. Until now, OBIS has focused solely on the collection of biogeographic data (the presence of marine species in space and time) and operated with optimized data flows, quality control procedures and data standards specifically targeted to these data. Based on requirements from the growing OBIS community to manage datasets that combine biological, physical and chemical measurements, the OBIS-ENV-DATA pilot project was launched to develop a proposed standard and guidelines to make sure these combined datasets can stay together and are not, as is often the case, split and sent to different repositories. The proposal in this paper allows for the management of sampling methodology, animal tracking and telemetry data, biological measurements (e.g., body length, percent live cover, ...) as well as environmental measurements such as nutrient concentrations, sediment characteristics or other abiotic parameters measured during sampling to characterize the environment from which biogeographic data was collected. The recommended practice builds on the Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) standard and on practices adopted by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). It consists of a DwC Event Core in combination with a DwC Occurrence Extension and a proposed enhancement to the DwC MeasurementOrFact Extension. This new structure enables the linkage of measurements or facts - quantitative and qualitative properties - to both sampling events and species occurrences, and includes additional fields for property standardization. We also embrace the use of the new parentEventID DwC term, which enables the creation of a sampling event hierarchy. We believe that the adoption of this recommended practice as a new data standard for managing and sharing biological and associated environmental datasets by IODE and the wider international scientific community would be key to improving the effectiveness of the knowledge base, and will enhance integration and management of critical data needed to understand ecological and biological processes in the ocean, and on land.
© The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Biodiversity Data Journal 5 (2017): e10989, doi:10.3897/BDJ.5.e10989.
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Biodiversity Data Journal 5 (2017): e10989
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