Nürnberg Dirk

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  • Article
    Early Pliocene increase in thermohaline overturning : a precondition for the development of the modern equatorial Pacific cold tongue
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-04-15) Steph, Silke ; Tiedemann, Ralf ; Prange, Matthias ; Groeneveld, Jeroen ; Schulz, Michael ; Timmermann, Axel ; Nürnberg, Dirk ; Ruhlemann, Carsten ; Saukel, Cornelia ; Haug, Gerald H.
    Unraveling the processes responsible for Earth's climate transition from an “El Niño–like state” during the warm early Pliocene into a modern-like “La Niña–dominated state” currently challenges the scientific community. Recently, the Pliocene climate switch has been linked to oceanic thermocline shoaling at ∼3 million years ago along with Earth's final transition into a bipolar icehouse world. Here we present Pliocene proxy data and climate model results, which suggest an earlier timing of the Pliocene climate switch and a different chain of forcing mechanisms. We show that the increase in North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation between 4.8 and 4.0 million years ago, initiated by the progressive closure of the Central American Seaway, triggered overall shoaling of the tropical thermocline. This preconditioned the turnaround from a warm eastern equatorial Pacific to the modern equatorial cold tongue state about 1 million years earlier than previously assumed. Since ∼3.6–3.5 million years ago, the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation resulted in a strengthening of the trade winds, thereby amplifying upwelling and biogenic productivity at low latitudes.
  • Article
    Consistently dated Atlantic sediment cores over the last 40 thousand years
    (Nature Research, 2019-09-02) Waelbroeck, Claire ; Lougheed, Bryan C. ; Vazquez Riveiros, Natalia ; Missiaen, Lise ; Pedro, Joel ; Dokken, Trond ; Hajdas, Irka ; Wacker, Lukas ; Abbott, Peter ; Dumoulin, Jean-Pascal ; Thil, Francois ; Eynaud, Frederique ; Rossignol, Linda ; Fersi, Wiem ; Albuquerque, Ana Luiza ; Arz, Helge W. ; Austin, William E. N. ; Came, Rosemarie E. ; Carlson, Anders E. ; Collins, James A. ; Dennielou, Bernard ; Desprat, Stéphanie ; Dickson, Alex ; Elliot, Mary ; Farmer, Christa ; Giraudeau, Jacques ; Gottschalk, Julia ; Henderiks, Jorijntje ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Jung, Simon ; Knutz, Paul ; Lebreiro, Susana ; Lund, David C. ; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean ; Malaizé, Bruno ; Marchitto, Thomas M. ; Martínez-Méndez, Gema ; Mollenhauer, Gesine ; Naughton, Filipa ; Nave, Silvia ; Nürnberg, Dirk ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Peck, Vicky L. ; Peeters, Frank J. C. ; Penaud, Aurélie ; Portilho-Ramos, Rodrigo da Costa ; Repschläger, Janne ; Roberts, Jenny ; Ruhlemann, Carsten ; Salgueiro, Emilia ; Sanchez Goni, Maria Fernanda ; Schönfeld, Joachim ; Scussolini, Paolo ; Skinner, Luke C. ; Skonieczny, Charlotte ; Thornalley, David J. R. ; Toucanne, Samuel ; Van Rooij, David ; Vidal, Laurence ; Voelker, Antje H. L. ; Wary, Mélanie ; Weldeab, Syee ; Ziegler, Martin
    Rapid changes in ocean circulation and climate have been observed in marine-sediment and ice cores over the last glacial period and deglaciation, highlighting the non-linear character of the climate system and underlining the possibility of rapid climate shifts in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. To date, these rapid changes in climate and ocean circulation are still not fully explained. One obstacle hindering progress in our understanding of the interactions between past ocean circulation and climate changes is the difficulty of accurately dating marine cores. Here, we present a set of 92 marine sediment cores from the Atlantic Ocean for which we have established age-depth models that are consistent with the Greenland GICC05 ice core chronology, and computed the associated dating uncertainties, using a new deposition modeling technique. This is the first set of consistently dated marine sediment cores enabling paleoclimate scientists to evaluate leads/lags between circulation and climate changes over vast regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Moreover, this data set is of direct use in paleoclimate modeling studies.
  • Article
    Southern Hemisphere forcing of South Asian monsoon precipitation over the past ~1 million years
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-11-08) Gebregiorgis, Daniel ; Hathorne, Ed C. ; Giosan, Liviu ; Clemens, Steven C. ; Nürnberg, Dirk ; Frank, Martin
    The orbital-scale timing of South Asian monsoon (SAM) precipitation is poorly understood. Here we present new SST and seawater δ18O (δ18Osw) records from the Bay of Bengal, the core convective region of the South Asian monsoon, over the past 1 million years. Our records reveal that SAM precipitation peaked in the precession band ~9 kyrs after Northern Hemisphere summer insolation maxima, in phase with records of SAM winds in the Arabian Sea and eastern Indian Ocean. Precession-band variance, however, accounts for ~30% of the total variance of SAM precipitation while it was either absent or dominant in records of the East Asian monsoon (EAM). This and the observation that SAM precipitation was phase locked with obliquity minima and was sensitive to Southern Hemisphere warming provides clear evidence that SAM and EAM precipitation responded differently to orbital forcing and highlights the importance of internal processes forcing monsoon variability.