Brown Kristina A.

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Kristina A.

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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Article
    Geochemistry of small Canadian Arctic rivers with diverse geological and hydrological settings
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-01-03) Brown, Kristina A. ; Williams, William J. ; Carmack, Eddy C. ; Fiske, Gregory J. ; Francois, Roger ; McLennan, Donald ; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard
    A survey of 25 coastal‐draining rivers across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) shows that these systems are distinct from the largest Arctic rivers that drain watersheds extending far south of the Arctic circle. Observations collected from 2014 to 2016 illustrate the influences of seasonal hydrology, bedrock geology, and landscape physiography on each river's inorganic geochemical characteristics. Summertime data show the impact of coincident gradients in lake cover and surficial geology on river geochemical signatures. In the north and central CAA, drainage basins are generally smaller, underlain by sedimentary bedrock, and their hydrology is driven by seasonal precipitation pulses that undergo little modification before they enter the coastal ocean. In the southern CAA, a high density of lakes stores water longer within the terrestrial system, permitting more modification of water isotope and geochemical characteristics. Annual time‐series observations from two CAA rivers reveal that their concentration‐discharge relationships differ compared with those of the largest Arctic rivers, suggesting that future projections of dissolved ion fluxes from CAA rivers to the Arctic Ocean may not be reliably made based on compositions of the largest Arctic rivers alone, and that rivers draining the CAA region will likely follow different trajectories of change under a warming climate. Understanding how these small, coastal‐draining river systems will respond to climate change is essential to fully evaluate the impact of changing freshwater inputs to the Arctic marine system.
  • Article
    The pulse of the Amazon: fluxes of dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and ions from the world's largest river
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-03-15) Drake, Travis W. ; Hemingway, Jordon D. ; Kurek, Martin ; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard ; Brown, Kristina A. ; Holmes, Robert M. ; Galy, Valier ; Moura, José M. ; Mitsuya, Miyuki ; Wassenaar, Leonard ; Six, Johan ; Spencer, Robert G. M.
    The Amazon River drains a diverse tropical landscape greater than 6 million km2, culminating in the world's largest export of freshwater and dissolved constituents to the ocean. Here, we present dissolved organic carbon (DOC), organic and inorganic nitrogen (DON, DIN), orthophosphate (PO43−), and major and trace ion concentrations and fluxes from the Amazon River using 26 samples collected over three annual hydrographs. Concentrations and fluxes were predominantly controlled by the annual wet season flood pulse. Average DOC, DON, DIN, and PO43− fluxes (±1 s.d.) were 25.5 (±1.0), 1.14 (±0.05), 0.82 (±0.03), and 0.063 (±0.003) Tg yr−1, respectively. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter absorption (at 350 nm) was strongly correlated with DOC concentrations, resulting in a flux of 74.8 × 106 m−2 yr−1. DOC and DON concentrations positively correlated with discharge while nitrate + nitrite concentrations negatively correlated, suggesting mobilization and dilution responses, respectively. Ammonium, PO43−, and silica concentrations displayed chemostatic responses to discharge. Major and trace ion concentrations displayed clockwise hysteresis (except for chloride, sodium, and rubidium) and exhibited either dilution or chemostatic responses. The sources of weathered cations also displayed seasonality, with the highest proportion of carbonate- and silicate-derived cations occurring during peak and baseflow, respectively. Finally, our seasonally resolved weathering model resulted in an average CO2 consumption yield of (3.55 ± 0.11) × 105 mol CO2 km−2 yr−1. These results represent an updated and temporally refined quantification of dissolved fluxes that highlight the strong seasonality of export from the world's largest river and set a robust baseline against which to gauge future change.
  • Article
    Carbon dynamics in the western Arctic Ocean : insights from full-depth carbon isotope profiles of DIC, DOC, and POC
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2012-03-28) Griffith, David R. ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Xu, Li ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Macdonald, Robie W. ; Brown, Kristina A. ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    Arctic warming is projected to continue throughout the coming century. Yet, our currently limited understanding of the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle hinders our ability to predict how changing conditions will affect local Arctic ecosystems, regional carbon budgets, and global climate. We present here the first set of concurrent, full-depth, dual-isotope profiles for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and suspended particulate organic carbon (POCsusp) at two sites in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The carbon isotope composition of sinking and suspended POC in the Arctic contrasts strongly with open ocean Atlantic and Pacific sites, pointing to a combination of inputs to Arctic POCsusp at depth, including surface-derived organic carbon (OC), sorbed/advected OC, and OC derived from in situ DIC fixation. The latter process appears to be particularly important at intermediate depths, where mass balance calculations suggest that OC derived from in situ DIC fixation contributes up to 22% of POCsusp. As in other oceans, surface-derived OC is still a dominant source to Arctic POCsusp. Yet, we suggest that significantly smaller vertical POC fluxes in the Canada Basin make it possible to see evidence of DIC fixation in the POCsusp pool even at the bulk isotope level.
  • Article
    Inorganic carbon system dynamics in landfast Arctic sea ice during the early-melt period
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-05-19) Brown, Kristina A. ; Miller, Lisa A. ; Mundy, Christopher J. ; Papakyriakou, Tim ; Francois, Roger ; Gosselin, Michel ; Carnat, Gauthier ; Swystun, Kyle ; Tortell, Philippe D.
    We present the results of a 6 week time series of carbonate system and stable isotope measurements investigating the effects of sea ice on air-sea CO2 exchange during the early melt period in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Our observations revealed significant changes in sea ice and sackhole brine carbonate system parameters that were associated with increasing temperatures and the buildup of chlorophyll a in bottom ice. The warming sea-ice column could be separated into distinct geochemical zones where biotic and abiotic processes exerted different influences on inorganic carbon and pCO2 distributions. In the bottom ice, biological carbon uptake maintained undersaturated pCO2 conditions throughout the time series, while pCO2 was supersaturated in the upper ice. Low CO2 permeability of the sea ice matrix and snow cover effectively impeded CO2 efflux to the atmosphere, despite a strong pCO2 gradient. Throughout the middle of the ice column, brine pCO2 decreased significantly with time and was tightly controlled by solubility, as sea ice temperature and in situ melt dilution increased. Once the influence of melt dilution was accounted for, both CaCO3 dissolution and seawater mixing were found to contribute alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon to brines, with the CaCO3 contribution driving brine pCO2 to values lower than predicted from melt-water dilution alone. This field study reveals a dynamic carbon system within the rapidly warming sea ice, prior to snow melt. We suggest that the early spring period drives the ice column toward pCO2 undersaturation, contributing to a weak atmospheric CO2 sink as the melt period advances.
  • Article
    Sources of dissolved inorganic carbon to the Canada Basin halocline : a multitracer study
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-05-04) Brown, Kristina A. ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Tortell, Philippe D. ; Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo ; Francois, Roger
    We examine the dissolved inorganic carbon maximum in the Canada Basin halocline using a suite of geochemical tracers to gain insight into the factors that contribute to the persistence of this feature. Hydrographic and geochemical samples were collected in the upper 500 m of the southwestern Canada Basin water column in the summer of 2008 and fall of 2009. These observations were used to identify conservative and nonconservative processes that contribute dissolved inorganic carbon to halocline source waters, including shelf sediment organic matter remineralization, air-sea gas exchange, and sea-ice brine export. Our results indicate that the remineralization of organic matter that occurs along the Bering and Chukchi Sea shelves is the overwhelming contributor of dissolved inorganic carbon to Pacific Winter Water that occupies the middle halocline in the southwestern Canada Basin. Nonconservative contributions from air-sea exchange and sea-ice brine are not significant. The broad salinity range associated with the DIC maximum, compared to the narrow salinity range of the nutrient maximum, is due to mixing between Pacific and Atlantic water and not abiotic addition of DIC.
  • Article
    Radium inputs into the Arctic Ocean from rivers a basin‐wide estimate
    (American Geophysical Union, 2022-09-08) Bullock, Emma J. ; Kipp, Lauren ; Moore, Willard S. ; Brown, Kristina A. ; Mann, Paul J. ; Vonk, Jorien E. ; Zimov, Nikita S. ; Charette, Matthew A.
    Radium isotopes have been used to trace nutrient, carbon, and trace metal fluxes inputs from ocean margins. However, these approaches require a full accounting of radium sources to the coastal ocean including rivers. Here, we aim to quantify river radium inputs into the Arctic Ocean for the first time for 226Ra and to refine the estimates for 228Ra. Using new and existing data, we find that the estimated combined (dissolved plus desorbed) annual 226Ra and 228Ra fluxes to the Arctic Ocean are [7.0–9.4] × 1014 dpm y−1 and [15–18] × 1014 dpm y−1, respectively. Of these totals, 44% and 60% of the river 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively are from suspended sediment desorption, which were estimated from laboratory incubation experiments. Using Ra isotope data from 20 major rivers around the world, we derived global annual 226Ra and 228Ra fluxes of [7.4–17] × 1015 and [15–27] × 1015 dpm y−1, respectively. As climate change spurs rapid Arctic warming, hydrological cycles are intensifying and coastal ice cover and permafrost are diminishing. These river radium inputs to the Arctic Ocean will serve as a valuable baseline as we attempt to understand the changes that warming temperatures are having on fluxes of biogeochemically important elements to the Arctic coastal zone.