Multi-modal and inertial sensor solutions for navigation-type factor graphs
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This thesis presents a sum-product inference algorithm for platform navigation called Multi-modal iSAM (incremental smoothing and mapping). CommonGaussian-only likelihoods are restrictive and require a complex front-end processes to deal with non-Gaussian measurements. Instead, our approach allows the front-end to defer ambiguities with non-Gaussian measurement models. We retain the acyclic Bayes tree (and incremental update strategy) from the predecessor iSAM2 maxproduct algorithm [Kaess et al., IJRR 2012]. The approach propagates continuous beliefs on the Bayes (Junction) tree, which is an efficient symbolic refactorization of the nonparametric factor graph, and asymptotically approximates the underlying Chapman-Kolmogorov equations. Our method tracks dominant modes in the marginal posteriors of all variables with minimal approximation error, while suppressing almost all lowlikelihood modes (in a non-permanent manner). Keeping with existing inertial navigation, we present a novel, continuous-time, retroactively calibrating inertial odometry residual function, using preintegration to seamlessly incorporate pure inertial sensor measurements into a factor graph. We centralize around a factor graph (with starved graph databases) to separate elements of the navigation into an ecosystem of processes. Practical examples are included, such as how to infer multi-modal marginal posterior belief estimates for ambiguous loop closures; rawbeam-formed acoustic measurements; or conventional parametric likelihoods, and others.
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution September 2017
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