Air-sea heat flux climatologies in the Mediterranean Sea : surface energy balance and its consistency with ocean heat storage Authors
MetadataShow full item record
This study provides an analysis of the Mediterranean Sea surface energy budget using nine surface heat flux climatologies. The ensemble mean estimation shows that the net downward shortwave radiation (192 ± 19 W m−2) is balanced by latent heat flux (−98 ± 10 W m−2), followed by net longwave radiation (−78 ± 13 W m−2) and sensible heat flux (−13 ± 4 W m−2). The resulting net heat budget (Qnet) is 2 ± 12 W m−2 into the ocean, which appears to be warm biased. The annual-mean Qnet should be −5.6 ± 1.6 W m−2 when estimated from the observed net transport through the Strait of Gibraltar. To diagnose the uncertainty in nine Qnet climatologies, we constructed Qnet from the heat budget equation by using historic hydrological observations to determine the heat content changes and advective heat flux. We also used the Qnet from a data-assimilated global ocean state estimation as an additional reference. By comparing with the two reference Qnet estimates, we found that seven products (NCEP 1, NCEP 2, CFSR, ERA-Interim, MERRA, NOCSv2.0, and OAFlux+ISCCP) overestimate Qnet, with magnitude ranging from 6 to 27 W m−2, while two products underestimate Qnet by −6 W m−2 (JRA55) and −14 W m−2 (CORE.2). Together with the previous warm pool work of Song and Yu (2013), we show that CFSR, MERRA, NOCSv2.0, and OAFlux+ISCCP are warm-biased not only in the western Pacific warm pool but also in the Mediterranean Sea, while CORE.2 is cold-biased in both regions. The NCEP 1, 2, and ERA-Interim are cold-biased over the warm pool but warm-biased in the Mediterranean Sea.
Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 122 (2017): 4068–4087, doi:10.1002/2016JC012254.
Suggested CitationJournal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 122 (2017): 4068–4087
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
How well does wind speed predict air-sea gas transfer in the sea ice zone? A synthesis of radon deficit profiles in the upper water column of the Arctic Ocean Loose, Brice; Kelly, Roger P.; Bigdeli, Arash; Williams, W.; Krishfield, Richard A.; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M.; Moran, S. Bradley (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-05-05)We present 34 profiles of radon-deficit from the ice-ocean boundary layer of the Beaufort Sea. Including these 34, there are presently 58 published radon-deficit estimates of air-sea gas transfer velocity (k) in the Arctic ...
Evaluation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Coupled-Ocean Atmospheric Response Experiment (NOAA/COARE) air-sea gas transfer parameterization using GasEx data Hare, Jeffrey E.; Fairall, Christopher W.; McGillis, Wade R.; Edson, James B.; Ward, Brian; Wanninkhof, Rik (American Geophysical Union, 2004-07-16)During the two recent GasEx field experiments, direct covariance measurements of air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes were obtained over the open ocean. Concurrently, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Coupled-Ocean ...
Sachs, Julian P. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1997-02)The goals of this thesis were: (1) to establish methods for the determination of nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios in marine particulate and sedimentary chlorophyll derivatives; (2) to establish chlorophyll δ15N and ...