Palmitoylation regulates glutamate receptor distributions in postsynaptic densities through control of PSD95 conformation and orientation
Lin, Eric I.
Antinone, Sarah E.
Reese, Thomas S.
Green, William N.
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PSD95 and SAP97 are homologous scaffold proteins with different N-terminal domains, possessing either a palmitoylation site (PSD95) or an L27 domain (SAP97). Here, we measured PSD95 and SAP97 conformation in vitro and in postsynaptic densities (PSDs) using FRET and electron microscopy, and examined how conformation regulated interactions with AMPA-type and NMDAtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs/NMDARs). Palmitoylation of PSD95 changed its conformation from a compact to an extended configuration. PSD95 associated with AMPARs (via TARP subunits) or NMDARs (via GluN2B subunits) only in its palmitoylated and extended conformation. In contrast, SAP97 in its extended conformation associates with NMDARs but not with AMPARs. Within PSDs, PSD95 and SAP97 were largely in the extended conformation, but had different orientations. PSD95 oriented perpendicular to the PSD membrane, with its palmitoylated, N-terminal domain at the membrane. SAP97 oriented parallel to the PSD membrane, likely as a dimer through interactions of its N-terminal, L27 domain. Changing PSD95 palmitoylation in PSDs altered PSD95 and AMPAR levels but did not affect NMDAR levels. These results indicate that in PSDs, PSD95 palmitoylation, conformation and its interactions are dynamic when associated with AMPARs, and more stable when associated with NMDARs. Altogether, our results are consistent with differential regulation of PSD95 palmitoylation in PSDs resulting from the clustering of palmitoylating and depalmitoylating enzymes into AMPAR nanodomains segregated away from NMDAR nanodomains.
Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2016. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (2016): E8482-E8491, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1612963113.