Impact of a localized source of subglacial discharge on the heat flux and submarine melting of a tidewater glacier : a laboratory study
MetadataShow full item record
Idealized laboratory experiments have been conducted in a two-layer stratified fluid to investigate the leading-order dynamics that control submarine melting and meltwater export near a vertical ice–ocean interface as a function of subglacial discharge. In summer, the discharge of surface runoff at the base of a glacier (subglacial discharge) generates strong buoyant plumes that rise along the glacier front entraining ambient water along the way. The entrainment enhances the heat transport toward the glacier front and hence the submarine melt rate increases with the subglacial discharge rate. In the laboratory, the effect of subglacial discharge is simulated by introducing freshwater at freezing temperature from a point source at the base of an ice block representing the glacier. The circulation pattern observed both with and without subglacial discharge resembles those observed in previous observational and numerical studies. Buoyant plumes rise vertically until they find either their neutrally buoyant level or the free surface. Hence, the meltwater can deposit within the interior of the water column and not entirely at the free surface, as confirmed by field observations. The heat budget in the tank, calculated following a new framework, gives estimates of submarine melt rate that increase with the subglacial discharge and are in agreement with the directly measured submarine melting. This laboratory study provides the first direct measurements of submarine melt rates for different subglacial discharges, and the results are consistent with the predictions of previous theoretical and numerical studies.
Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 46 (2016): 3155-3163, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-16-0123.1.
Suggested CitationJournal of Physical Oceanography 46 (2016): 3155-3163
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Linhoff, Benjamin S.; Charette, Matthew A.; Nienow, Peter W.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Tedstone, Andrew; Cowton, Thomas (Elsevier, 2017-01-23)Water flow beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been shown to include slow-inefficient (distributed) and fast-efficient (channelized) drainage systems, in response to meltwater delivery to the bed via both moulins ...
Glacial influence on the geochemistry of riverine iron fluxes to the Gulf of Alaska and effects of deglaciation Schroth, Andrew W.; Crusius, John; Chever, Fanny; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Rouxel, Olivier J. (American Geophysical Union, 2011-08-25)Riverine iron (Fe) derived from glacial weathering is a critical micronutrient source to ecosystems of the Gulf of Alaska (GoA). Here we demonstrate that the source and chemical nature of riverine Fe input to the GoA could ...
Andres, Magdalena; Silvano, Alessandro; Straneo, Fiamma; Watts, D. Randolph (American Meteorological Society, 2015-05)A 1-yr experiment using a pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounder (PIES) was conducted in Sermilik Fjord in southeastern Greenland (66°N, 38°E) from August 2011 to September 2012. Based on these high-latitude data, ...