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dc.contributor.authorBoutin, Jacqueline  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorChao, Yi  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorAsher, William E.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorDelcroix, Thierry  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorDrucker, Robert S.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorDrushka, Kyla  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorKolodziejczyk, Nicolas  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLee, Tong  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorReul, Nicolas  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorReverdin, Gilles  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSchanze, Julian J.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSoloviev, Alexander  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorYu, Lisan  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorAnderson, Jessica  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBrucker, Ludovic  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorDinnat, Emmanuel  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSantos-Garcia, Andrea  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorJones, W. Linwood  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMaes, Christophe  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMeissner, Thomas  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorTang, Wenqing  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorVinogradova, Nadya  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorWard, Brian  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2016-10-11T18:14:38Z
dc.date.available2017-02-28T09:21:32Z
dc.date.issued2016-08-31
dc.identifier.citationBulletin of the American Meteorological Society 97 (2016): 1391-1407en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/8442
dc.descriptionAuthor Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 97 (2016): 1391-1407, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00032.1.en_US
dc.description.abstractRemote sensing of salinity using satellite-mounted microwave radiometers provides new perspectives for studying ocean dynamics and the global hydrological cycle. Calibration and validation of these measurements is challenging because satellite and in situ methods measure salinity differently. Microwave radiometers measure the salinity in the top few centimeters of the ocean, whereas most in situ observations are reported below a depth of a few meters. Additionally, satellites measure salinity as a spatial average over an area of about 100 × 100 km2. In contrast, in situ sensors provide pointwise measurements at the location of the sensor. Thus, the presence of vertical gradients in, and horizontal variability of, sea surface salinity complicates comparison of satellite and in situ measurements. This paper synthesizes present knowledge of the magnitude and the processes that contribute to the formation and evolution of vertical and horizontal variability in near-surface salinity. Rainfall, freshwater plumes, and evaporation can generate vertical gradients of salinity, and in some cases these gradients can be large enough to affect validation of satellite measurements. Similarly, mesoscale to submesoscale processes can lead to horizontal variability that can also affect comparisons of satellite data to in situ data. Comparisons between satellite and in situ salinity measurements must take into account both vertical stratification and horizontal variability.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherAmerican Meteorological Societyen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00032.1
dc.titleSatellite and in situ salinity : understanding near-surface stratification and subfootprint variabilityen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.embargo2017-02-28en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00032.1


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