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dc.contributor.authorLong, Matthew H.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMooney, T. Aran  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorZakroff, Casey  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2016-08-12T17:30:28Z
dc.date.available2017-05-25T09:21:42Z
dc.date.issued2016-04
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/8242
dc.descriptionAuthor Posting. © The Author(s), 2016. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Inter-Research for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Ecology Progress Series 550 (2016): 111-119, doi:10.3354/meps11737.en_US
dc.description.abstractYoung animals found future cohorts and populations but are often particularly susceptible to environmental changes. This raises concerns that future conditions, influenced by anthropogenic changes such as ocean acidification and increasing oxygen minimum zones, will greatly affect ecosystems by impacting developing larvae. Understanding the potential impacts requires addressing present tolerances and the current conditions in which animals develop. Here, we examined the changes in oxygen and pH adjacent to and within normally-developing squid egg capsules, providing the first observations that the egg capsules, housing hundreds of embryos, had extremely low internal pH (7.34) and oxygen concentrations (1.9 μmol L-1). While early-stage egg capsules had pH and oxygen levels significantly lower than the surrounding seawater, late-stage capsules dropped dramatically to levels considered metabolically stressful even for adults. The structure of squid egg capsules resulted in a closely packed unit of respiring embryos, which likely contributed to the oxygen-poor and CO2-rich local environment. These conditions rivaled the extremes found in the squids’ natural environment, suggesting they may already be near their metabolic limit and that these conditions may induce a hatching cue. While squid may be adapted to these conditions, further climate change could place young, keystone squid outside of their physiological limits.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by a NSF Ocean Acidification grant (#1220034; TAM) and the WHOI Ocean Climate Change Institute (Ocean Acidification Initiative; MHL).en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.3354/meps11737
dc.subjectCephalopoden_US
dc.subjectClimate changeen_US
dc.subjectHypoxiaen_US
dc.subjectBoundary layeren_US
dc.subjectEggsen_US
dc.subjectLarvaen_US
dc.titleExtreme low oxygen and decreased pH conditions naturally occur within developing squid egg capsulesen_US
dc.typePreprinten_US
dc.description.embargo2017-05-25en_US


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