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dc.contributor.authorXu, Yixiao  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorRichlen, Mindy L.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLiefer, Justin D.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorRobertson, Alison  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorKulis, David M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Tyler  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorParsons, Michael L.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorAnderson, Donald M.  Concept link
dc.identifier.citationPLoS One 11 (2016): e0153197en_US
dc.description© The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in PLoS One 11 (2016): e0153197, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153197.en_US
dc.description.abstractBenthic dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus produce the ciguatoxin precursors responsible for the occurrence of ciguatera toxicity. The prevalence of ciguatera toxins in fish has been linked to the presence and distribution of toxin-producing species in coral reef ecosystems, which is largely determined by the presence of suitable benthic habitat and environmental conditions favorable for growth. Here using single factor experiments, we examined the effects of salinity, irradiance, and temperature on growth of 17 strains of Gambierdiscus representing eight species/phylotypes (G. belizeanus, G. caribaeus, G. carolinianus, G. carpenteri, G. pacificus, G. silvae, Gambierdiscus sp. type 4–5), most of which were established from either Marakei Island, Republic of Kiribati, or St. Thomas, United States Virgin Island (USVI). Comparable to prior studies, growth rates fell within the range of 0–0.48 divisions day-1. In the salinity and temperature studies, Gambierdiscus responded in a near Gaussian, non-linear manner typical for such studies, with optimal and suboptimal growth occurring in the range of salinities of 25 and 45 and 21.0 and 32.5°C. In the irradiance experiment, no mortality was observed; however, growth rates at 55μmol photons · m-2 · s-1 were lower than those at 110–400μmol photons · m-2 · s-1. At the extremes of the environmental conditions tested, growth rates were highly variable, evidenced by large coefficients of variability. However, significant differences in intraspecific growth rates were typically found only at optimal or near-optimal growth conditions. Polynomial regression analyses showed that maximum growth occurred at salinity and temperature levels of 30.1–38.5 and 23.8–29.2°C, respectively. Gambierdiscus growth patterns varied among species, and within individual species: G. belizeanus, G. caribaeus, G. carpenteri, and G. pacificus generally exhibited a wider range of tolerance to environmental conditions, which may explain their broad geographic distribution. In contrast, G. silvae and Gambierdiscus sp. types 4–5 all displayed a comparatively narrow range of tolerance to temperature, salinity, and irradiance.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41506137); Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (2015GXNSFCA139003), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U01 EH000421); USFDA (F223201000060C); NOAA NOS through the CiguaHAB program (Cooperative Agreement NA11NOS4780060, NA11NOS4780028); the Lana Vento Trust and VI-EPSCoR Program (NSF award # 346483 & 081441); and a System Fund from Key Laboratory of Environment Change and Resources Use in Beibu Gulf, Ministry of Education (2014BGERLXT01). Support was also provided by the Woods Hole Center for Oceans and Human Health through National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant OCE-1314642, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Grant 1-P01-ES021923-014, as well as the China Scholarship Council.en_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.titleInfluence of environmental variables on Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) growth and distributionen_US

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