Now showing items 295-314 of 1068

    • Effects of normal stress variation on the strength and stability of creeping faults 

      Boettcher, Margaret S.; Marone, C. (American Geophysical Union, 2004-03-11)
      A central problem in studies of fault interaction and earthquake triggering is that of quantifying changes in frictional strength and the constitutive response caused by dynamic stressing. We imposed normal stress vibrations ...
    • Effects of subducted seamounts on megathrust earthquake nucleation and rupture propagation 

      Yang, Hongfeng; Liu, Yajing; Lin, Jian (American Geophysical Union, 2012-12-19)
      Subducted seamounts have been linked to interplate earthquakes, but their specific effects on earthquake mechanism remain controversial. A key question is under what conditions a subducted seamount will generate or stop ...
    • Effects of variable magma supply on mid-ocean ridge eruptions : constraints from mapped lava flow fields along the Galápagos Spreading Center 

      Colman, Alice; Sinton, John M.; White, Scott M.; McClinton, J. Timothy; Bowles, Julie A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Behn, Mark D.; Cushman, Buffy; Eason, Deborah E.; Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Gronvold, Karl; Hidalgo, Silvana; Howell, Julia; Neill, Owen; Russo, Chris (American Geophysical Union, 2012-08-25)
      Mapping and sampling of 18 eruptive units in two study areas along the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC) provide insight into how magma supply affects mid-ocean ridge (MOR) volcanic eruptions. The two study areas have similar ...
    • Effusive and explosive volcanism on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge, 85°E 

      Pontbriand, Claire W.; Soule, Samuel A.; Sohn, Robert A.; Humphris, Susan E.; Kunz, Clayton G.; Singh, Hanumant; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Jakobsson, Martin; Shank, Timothy M. (American Geophysical Union, 2012-10-06)
      We use high-definition seafloor digital imagery and multibeam bathymetric data acquired during the 2007 Arctic Gakkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE) to evaluate the volcanic characteristics of the 85°E segment of the ultraslow ...
    • Electrical lithosphere beneath the Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa 

      Evans, Rob L.; Jones, Alan G.; Garcia, Xavier; Muller, Mark R.; Hamilton, Mark P.; Evans, Shane; Fourie, C. J. S.; Spratt, Jessica; Webb, Susan J.; Jelsma, Hielke; Hutchins, David (American Geophysical Union, 2011-04-20)
      A regional-scale magnetotelluric (MT) experiment across the southern African Kaapvaal craton and surrounding terranes, called the Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX), has revealed complex structure in the ...
    • Electrical structure beneath the northern MELT line on the East Pacific Rise at 15°45′S 

      Baba, Kiyoshi; Tarits, Pascal; Chave, Alan D.; Evans, Rob L.; Hirth, Greg; Mackie, Randall L. (American Geophysical Union, 2006-11-16)
      The electrical structure of the upper mantle beneath the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 15°45′S is imaged by inverting seafloor magnetotelluric data obtained during the Mantle ELectromagnetic and Tomography (MELT) experiment. ...
    • The electrical structure of the central Pacific upper mantle constrained by the NoMelt experiment 

      Sarafian, Emily; Evans, Rob L.; Collins, John A.; Elsenbeck, James R.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Gaherty, James B.; Hirth, Greg; Lizarralde, Daniel (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-04-18)
      The NoMelt experiment imaged the mantle beneath 70 Ma Pacific seafloor with the aim of understanding the transition from the lithosphere to the underlying convecting asthenosphere. Seafloor magnetotelluric data from four ...
    • Electromagnetic constraints on a melt region beneath the central Mariana back-arc spreading ridge 

      Matsuno, Tetsuo; Evans, Rob L.; Seama, Nobukazu; Chave, Alan D. (American Geophysical Union, 2012-10-25)
      An electrical resistivity profile across the central Mariana subduction system shows high resistivity in the upper mantle beneath the back-arc spreading ridge where melt might be expected to exist. Although seismic data ...
    • Elevated pCO2 exposure during fertilization of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians reduces larval survival but not subsequent shell size 

      White, Meredith M.; Mullineaux, Lauren S.; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Cohen, Anne L. (Inter-Research, 2014-02-17)
      Ocean acidification, characterized by elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), generally has negative effects on early life stages of invertebrates. We tested the idea that fertilization is a critical CO2 exposure stage ...
    • Elevation change of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to surface mass balance and firn processes, 1960–2014 

      Munneke, Peter Kuipers; Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; Noel, Brice P. Y.; Howat, Ian M.; Box, Jason E.; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen; McConnell, Joseph R.; Steffen, Konrad; Harper, Joel T.; Das, Sarah B.; van den Broeke, Michiel R. (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2015-11-02)
      Observed changes in the surface elevation of the Greenland Ice Sheet are caused by ice dynamics, basal elevation change, basal melt, surface mass balance (SMB) variability, and by compaction of the overlying firn. The last ...
    • An endobiont-bearing allogromiid from the Santa Barbara Basin : implications for the early diversification of foraminifera 

      Bernhard, Joan M.; Habura, Andrea; Bowser, Samuel S. (American Geophysical Union, 2006-07-19)
      Our current understanding of paleoecology and paleoceanography is largely based on the superb Phanerozoic fossil record of foraminiferan protists. The early history of the group is unresolved, however, because basal ...
    • Enriched, HIMU-type peridotite and depleted recycled pyroxenite in the Canary plume : a mixed-up mantle 

      Gurenko, Andrey A.; Sobolev, Alexander V.; Hoernle, Kaj A.; Hauff, Folkmar; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich (2008-11-15)
      The Earth’s mantle is chemically and isotopically heterogeneous, and a component of recycled oceanic crust is generally suspected in the convecting mantle [Hofmann and White, 1982. Mantle plumes from ancient oceanic crust. ...
    • “Equator Crossing” of Shatsky Rise?: New insights on Shatsky Rise tectonic motion from the downhole magnetic architecture of the uppermost lava sequences at Tamu Massif 

      Tominaga, Masako; Evans, Helen F.; Iturrino, Gerardo (American Geophysical Union, 2012-11-03)
      Shatsky Rise is a Large Igneous Province (LIP) currently located in the northwestern Pacific. New downhole magnetic logging data from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1347A at Tamu Massif of Shatsky Rise ...
    • An equatorial ocean bottleneck in global climate models 

      Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Murtugudde, Raghu (American Meteorological Society, 2012-01-01)
      The Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) is a major component of the tropical Pacific Ocean circulation. EUC velocity in most global climate models is sluggish relative to observations. Insufficient ocean resolution slows the EUC ...
    • Equatorial refuge amid tropical warming 

      Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Cohen, Anne L. (2012-03-16)
      Upwelling across the tropical Pacific Ocean is projected to weaken in accordance with a reduction of the atmospheric overturning circulation, enhancing the sea surface temperature (SST) increase relative to other regions ...
    • The Equatorial Undercurrent and TAO sampling bias from a decade at SEA 

      Leslie, William R.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B. (American Meteorological Society, 2014-09)
      The NOAA Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) moored array has, for three decades, been a valuable resource for monitoring and forecasting El Niño–Southern Oscillation and understanding physical oceanographic as well as coupled ...
    • Erosion of the cliffs of Outer Cape Cod : tables and graphs 

      Zeigler, John M.; Tasha, Herman J.; Giese, Graham S. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1964-06)
      The following tables and graphs place in convenient storage the results of several years of careful surveying and at the same time provide rudimentary interpretation of resuIts by comparing erosion rates. The reader will ...
    • Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement 

      Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhofer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R.; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R.; de Beer, Dirk (Nature Publishing Group, 2014-11-11)
      Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a ...
    • Eruptions at Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA: 1. Energetics and eruption dynamics 

      Karlstrom, Leif; Hurwitz, Shaul; Sohn, Robert A.; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Murphy, Fred; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Johnston, Malcolm J. S.; Manga, Michael; McCleskey, R. Blaine (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-08-13)
      Geysers provide a natural laboratory to study multiphase eruptive processes. We present results from a 4 day experiment at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, USA. We simultaneously measured water discharge, ...
    • Eruptions at Lone Star geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA: 2. Constraints on subsurface dynamics 

      Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Sohn, Robert A.; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Manga, Michael; Johnston, Malcolm J. S.; Soule, Samuel A.; McPhee, Darcy; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Karlstrom, Leif; Murphy, Fred (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-12-05)
      We use seismic, tilt, lidar, thermal, and gravity data from 32 consecutive eruption cycles of Lone Star geyser in Yellowstone National Park to identify key subsurface processes throughout the geyser's eruption cycle. ...