Scientists in the G&G Department seek knowledge of the structure, composition, and dynamics of the earth’s interior, the origin and evolution of the earth’s crust, controls on ocean and climate change on time scales of decades to 100 million years, and processes of mass and energy transfer at the land-sea interface.

Recent Submissions

  • Sea-level rise will drive divergent sediment transport patterns on fore reefs and reef flats, potentially causing erosion on Atoll Islands 

    Bramante, James F.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Cheriton, Olivia M.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P. (American Geophysical Union, 2020-09-25)
    Atoll reef islands primarily consist of unconsolidated sediment, and their ocean‐facing shorelines are maintained by sediment produced and transported across their reefs. Changes in incident waves can alter cross‐shore ...
  • Future climate response to Antarctic Ice Sheet melt caused by anthropogenic warming 

    Sadai, Shaina; Condron, Alan; DeConto, Robert M.; Pollard, David (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2020-09-23)
    Meltwater and ice discharge from a retreating Antarctic Ice Sheet could have important impacts on future global climate. Here, we report on multi-century (present–2250) climate simulations performed using a coupled numerical ...
  • Vp/Vs ratio of incoming sediments off Cascadia subduction zone from analysis of controlled-source multicomponent OBS records 

    Zhu, Jian; Canales, J. Pablo; Han, Shuoshuo; Carbotte, Suzanne M.; Arnulf, Adrien F.; Nedimovic, Mladen R. (American Geophysical Union, 2020-05-28)
    P‐to‐S‐converted waves observed in controlled‐source multicomponent ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) records were used to derive the Vp/Vs structure of Cascadia Basin sediments. We used P‐to‐S waves converted at the basement ...
  • Scientific challenges and present capabilities in underwater robotic vehicle design and navigation for oceanographic exploration under-ice 

    Barker, Laughlin D. L.; Jakuba, Michael V.; Bowen, Andrew D.; German, Christopher R.; Maksym, Ted; Mayer, Larry A.; Boetius, Antje; Dutrieux, Pierre; Whitcomb, Louis L. (MDPI, 2020-08-11)
    This paper reviews the scientific motivation and challenges, development, and use of underwater robotic vehicles designed for use in ice-covered waters, with special attention paid to the navigation systems employed for ...
  • Structural variability within the Kane Oceanic Core Complex from full waveform inversion and reverse time migration of streamer data 

    Xu, Min; Zhao, Xu; Canales, J. Pablo (American Geophysical Union, 2020-03-28)
    The origin and distribution of the gabbroic bodies provide crucial information to understand the formation and evolution processes of the oceanic core complexes (OCCs). Nevertheless, images of the shape of the gabbroic ...
  • Exceptional 20th century ocean circulation in the Northeast Atlantic 

    Spooner, Peter T.; Thornalley, David J. R.; Oppo, Delia W.; Fox, Alan D.; Radionovskaya, Svetlana; Rose, Neil L.; Mallett, Robbie; Cooper, Emma; Roberts, J. Murray (American Geophysical Union, 2020-04-17)
    The North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) connects tropical and high‐latitude waters, playing a leading role in deep‐water formation, propagation of Atlantic water into the Arctic, and as habitat for many ecosystems. Instrumental ...
  • Radiocarbon dating of Makuri Le boom, a very old African baobab from Nyae Nyae, Namibia 

    Patrut, Roxana T.; Patrut, Adrian; Rakosy, Demetra; Rakosy, Laszlo; Lowy, Daniel A.; Bodis, Jeno; von Reden, Karl F. (Department of Chemistry, 2020)
    The article reports the AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating results of Makuri Lê boom, a very large African baobab from Nyae Nyae Conservancy, Namibia. The investigation of this superlative ...
  • Abiotic redox reactions in hydrothermal mixing zones: decreased energy availability for the subsurface biosphere 

    McDermott, Jill M.; Sylva, Sean P.; Ono, Shuhei; German, Christopher R.; Seewald, Jeffrey S. (National Academy of Sciences, 2020-08-12)
    Subseafloor mixing of high-temperature hot-spring fluids with cold seawater creates intermediate-temperature diffuse fluids that are replete with potential chemical energy. This energy can be harnessed by a chemosynthetic ...
  • Silica-rich vein formation in an evolving stress field, Atlantis Bank Oceanic Core Complex 

    Ma, Qiang; Dick, Henry J. B.; Urann, Benjamin M.; Zhou, Huaiyang (American Geophysical Union, 2020-06-14)
    Drilling 809‐m Hole U1473A in the gabbro batholith at the Atlantis Bank Oceanic Core Complex (OCC) found two felsic vein generations: late magmatic fractionates, rich in deuteric water, hosted by oxide gabbros, and anatectic ...
  • Viral elements and their potential influence on microbial processes along the permanently stratified Cariaco Basin redoxcline 

    Mara, Paraskevi; Vik, Dean; Pachiadaki, Maria G.; Suter, Elizabeth A.; Poulos, Bonnie; Taylor, Gordon T.; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Edgcomb, Virginia P. (Springer Nature, 2020-08-14)
    Little is known about viruses in oxygen-deficient water columns (ODWCs). In surface ocean waters, viruses are known to act as gene vectors among susceptible hosts. Some of these genes may have metabolic functions and are ...
  • Dual clumped isotope thermometry resolves kinetic biases in carbonate formation temperatures 

    Bajnai, David; Guo, Weifu; Spötl, Christoph; Coplen, Tyler B.; Methner, Katharina; Löffler, Niklas; Krsnik, Emilija; Gischler, Eberhard; Hansen, Maximilian; Henkel, Daniela; Price, Gregory D.; Raddatz, Jacek; Scholz, Denis; Fiebig, Jens (Nature Research, 2020-08-10)
    Surface temperature is a fundamental parameter of Earth’s climate. Its evolution through time is commonly reconstructed using the oxygen isotope and the clumped isotope compositions of carbonate archives. However, reaction ...
  • Recycled arc mantle recovered from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 

    Urann, Benjamin M.; Dick, Henry J. B.; Parnell-Turner, Ross; Casey, John F. (Nature Research, 2020-08-04)
    Plate tectonics and mantle dynamics necessitate mantle recycling throughout Earth’s history, yet direct geochemical evidence for mantle reprocessing remains elusive. Here we present evidence of recycled supra-subduction ...
  • Lipid biomarker record documents hydroclimatic variability of the Mississippi River Basin during the common era 

    Munoz, Samuel E.; Porter, Trevor J.; Bakkelund, Aleesha; Nusbaumer, Jesse; Dee, Sylvia G.; Hamilton, Brynnydd; Giosan, Liviu; Tierney, Jessica E. (Wiley, 2020-05-30)
    Floods and droughts in the Mississippi River basin are perennial hazards that cause severe economic disruption. Here we develop and analyze a new lipid biomarker record from Horseshoe Lake (Illinois, USA) to evaluate the ...
  • How does viscosity contrast influence phase mixing and strain localization? 

    Cross, Andrew J.; Olree, Elizabeth; Couvy, Hélène; Skemer, Philip (American Geophysical Union, 2020-08-04)
    Ultramylonites—intensely deformed rocks with fine grain sizes and well‐mixed mineral phases—are thought to be a key component of Earth‐like plate tectonics, because coupled phase mixing and grain boundary pinning enable ...
  • Investigating Mexican paleoclimate with precisely dated speleothems 

    Serrato Marks, Gabriela (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-09)
    Speleothems, or sedimentary rocks formed in caves, act as valuable archives of past climate change due to their suitability for U-series dating and high-resolution proxy analysis. These records can provide insights into ...
  • Deep high-temperature hydrothermal circulation in a detachment faulting system on the ultra-slow spreading ridge 

    Tao, Chunhui; Seyfried, William E.; Lowell, Robert P.; Liu, Yunlong; Liang, Jin; Guo, Zhikui; Ding, Kang; Zhang, Huatian; Liu, Jia; Qiu, Lei; Egorov, Igor; Liao, Shili; Zhao, Minghui; Zhou, JianPing; Deng, Xianming; Li, Huaiming; Wang, Hanchuang; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhou, Hongwei; Lin, Jian; Li, Wei (Nature Research, 2020-03-10)
    Coupled magmatic and tectonic activity plays an important role in high-temperature hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges. The circulation patterns for such systems have been elucidated by microearthquakes and ...
  • Fate of internal waves on a shallow shelf 

    Davis, Kristen A.; Arthur, Robert S.; Reid, Emma C.; Rogers, Justin S.; Fringer, Oliver B.; DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Cohen, Anne L. (American Geophysical Union, 2020-04-21)
    Internal waves strongly influence the physical and chemical environment of coastal ecosystems worldwide. We report novel observations from a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system that tracked the transformation of ...
  • High resolution sedimentary archives of past millennium hurricane activity in the Bahama Archipelago 

    Wallace, Elizabeth J. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-09)
    Little is known about how Atlantic hurricane activity changes on long timescales. This thesis uses proxy development and proxy-model integration to constrain the spatiotemporal variability in hurricane activity in the ...
  • The evolution of seafloor spreading behind the tip of the westward propagating Cocos-Nazca spreading center 

    Smith, Deborah K.; Schouten, Hans A.; Parnell-Turner, Ross; Klein, Emily M.; Cann, Johnson R.; Dunham, Charles; Alodia, Gabriella; Blasco, Iker; Wernette, Benjamin; Zawadzki, Dominik; Latypova, Elvira; Afshar, Sara; Curry, Scott (American Geophysical Union, 2020-05-11)
    At the Galapagos triple junction in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, the Cocos‐Nazca spreading center does not meet the East Pacific Rise (EPR) but, instead, rifts into 0.4 Myr‐old lithosphere on the EPR flank. Westward ...
  • Limited and localized magmatism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province 

    Marzen, Rachel E.; Shillington, Donna J.; Lizarralde, Daniel; Knapp, James H.; Heffner, David M.; Davis, Joshua K.; Harder, Steven H. (Nature Research, 2020-07-07)
    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the most aerially extensive magmatic event in Earth’s history, but many questions remain about its origin, volume, and distribution. Despite many observations of CAMP magmatism ...

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