Scientists in the G&G Department seek knowledge of the structure, composition, and dynamics of the earth’s interior, the origin and evolution of the earth’s crust, controls on ocean and climate change on time scales of decades to 100 million years, and processes of mass and energy transfer at the land-sea interface.

Recent Submissions

  • The challenges of detecting and attributing ocean acidification impacts on marine ecosystems 

    Doo, Steve; Kealoha, Andrea K.; Andersson, Andreas; Cohen, Anne L.; Hicks, Tacey L.; Johnson, Zackary I.; Long, Matthew H.; McElhany, Paul; Mollica, Nathaniel R.; Shamberger, Kathryn E. F.; Silbiger, Nyssa J.; Takeshita, Yuichiro; Busch, D. Shallin (Oxford University Press, 2020-08-09)
    A substantial body of research now exists demonstrating sensitivities of marine organisms to ocean acidification (OA) in laboratory settings. However, corresponding in situ observations of marine species or ecosystem changes ...
  • Teleseismic earthquake wavefields observed on the ross ice shelf 

    Baker, Michael G.; Aster, Richard C.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Bromirski, Peter D.; Gerstoft, Peter; Stephen, Ralph A. (Cambridge University Press, 2020-10-14)
    Observations of teleseismic earthquakes using broadband seismometers on the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) must contend with environmental and structural processes that do not exist for land-sited seismometers. Important considerations ...
  • The effects of degassing on magmatic gas waves and long period eruptive precursors at silicic volcanoes 

    Jordan, Jacob S.; Bercovici, David; Liao, Yang; Michaut, Chloé (American Geophysical Union, 2020-09-22)
    Cyclical ground deformation, associated seismicity, and elevated degassing are important precursors to explosive eruptions at silicic volcanoes. Regular intervals for elevated activity (6–30 hr) have been observed at ...
  • Mid-Holocene Antarctic sea-ice increase driven by marine ice sheet retreat 

    Ashley, Kate E.; McKay, Robert; Etourneau, Johan; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Condron, Alan; Albot, Anna; Crosta, Xavier; Riesselman, Christina; Seki, Osamu; Massé, Guillaume; Golledge, Nicholas; Gasson, Edward; Lowry, Daniel P.; Barrand, Nicholas E.; Johnson, Katelyn; Bertler, Nancy; Escutia, Carlota; Dunbar, Robert B.; Bendle, James A. (European Geosciences Union, 2021-01-05)
    Over recent decades Antarctic sea-ice extent has increased, alongside widespread ice shelf thinning and freshening of waters along the Antarctic margin. In contrast, Earth system models generally simulate a decrease in sea ...
  • Middle miocene intensification of South Asian monsoonal rainfall 

    Yang, Xueping; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Jian, Zhimin; Steinke, Stephan; Giosan, Liviu (American Geophysical Union, 2020-11-27)
    During the middle Miocene, Earth's climate changed from a global warm period (Miocene Climatic Optimum) into a colder one with the expansion of the Antarctic ice sheet. This prominent climate transition was also a period ...
  • Monogenetic near-island seamounts in the Galapagos Archipelago 

    Schwartz, Darin M.; Wanless, V. Dorsey; Soule, Samuel A.; Schmitz, Mark D.; Kurz, Mark D. (American Geophysical Union, 2020-11-06)
    Rarely have small seamounts on the flanks of hotspot derived ocean‐island volcanoes been the targets of sampling, due to sparse high‐resolution mapping near ocean islands. In the Galápagos Archipelago, for instance, sampling ...
  • Physical processes determine spatial structure in water temperature and residence time on a wide reef flat 

    Reid, Emma C.; Lentz, Steven J.; DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Cohen, Anne L.; Davis, Kristen A. (American Geophysical Union, 2020-11-23)
    On coral reefs, flow determines residence time of water influencing physical and chemical environments and creating observable microclimates within the reef structure. Understanding the physical mechanisms driving environmental ...
  • Coral record of younger dryas chronozone warmth on the Great Barrier Reef 

    Brenner, Logan D.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Webster, Jody M.; Potts, Donald C.; Felis, Thomas; Gagan, Michael K.; Inoue, Mayuri; McGregor, Helen V.; Suzuki, Atsushi; Tudhope, Alexander W.; Esat, Tezer M.; Thomas, Alexander L.; Thompson, William G.; Fallon, Stewart; Humblet, Marc; Tiwari, Manish; Yokoyama, Yusuke (American Geophysical Union, 2020-12-11)
    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is an internationally recognized and widely studied ecosystem, yet little is known about its sea surface temperature (SST) evolution since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (~20 kyr BP). Here, we ...
  • Along-margin variations in breakup volcanism at the Eastern North American Margin 

    Greene, John A.; Tominaga, Masako; Miller, Nathaniel C. (American Geophysical Union, 2020-11-16)
    We model the magnetic signature of rift‐related volcanism to understand the distribution and volume of magmatic activity that occurred during the breakup of Pangaea and early Atlantic opening at the Eastern North American ...
  • A long-term geothermal observatory across subseafloor gas hydrates, IODP Hole U1364A, Cascadia accretionary prism 

    Becker, Keir; Davis, Earl E.; Heesemann, Martin; Collins, John A.; McGuire, Jeffrey J. (Frontiers Media, 2020-12-21)
    We report 4 years of temperature profiles collected from May 2014 to May 2018 in Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole U1364A in the frontal accretionary prism of the Cascadia subduction zone. The temperature data extend ...
  • A blueprint for an inclusive, global deep-sea ocean decade field program 

    Howell, Kerry L.; Hilario, Ana; Allcock, A. Louise; Bailey, David; Baker, Maria C.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Colaço, Ana; Copley, Jonathan T.; Cordes, Erik E.; Danovaro, Roberto; Dissanayake, Awantha; Escobar Briones, Elva; Esquete, Patricia; Gallagher, Austin J.; Gates, Andrew R.; Gaudron, Sylvie M.; German, Christopher R.; Gjerde, Kristina M.; Higgs, Nicholas D.; Le Bris, Nadine; Levin, Lisa A; Manea, Elisabetta; McClain, Craig; Menot, Lenaick; Mestre, Mireia; Metaxas, Anna; Milligan, Rosanna J.; Muthumbi, Agnes W. N.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Ramalho, Sofia P.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Robson, Laura M.; Rogers, Alex D.; Sellanes, Javier; Sigwart, Julia D.; Sink, Kerry; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Stefanoudis, Paris V.; Sumida, Paulo Y.; Taylor, Michelle L.; Thurber, Andrew R.; Vieira, Rui P.; Watanabe, Hiromi K.; Woodall, Lucy C.; Xavier, Joana R. (Frontiers Media, 2020-11-25)
    The ocean plays a crucial role in the functioning of the Earth System and in the provision of vital goods and services. The United Nations (UN) declared 2021–2030 as the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. ...
  • Subseries/Subepochs approved as a formal rank in the international stratigraphic guide 

    Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Head, Martin J.; Piller, Werner E.; Berggren, William A. (International Union of Geological Sciences, 2020-07-01)
    The International Subcommission on Stratigraphic Classification, as the constituent body of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) responsible for the International Stratigraphic Guide, has voted to include the ...
  • Continental interior and edge breakup at convergent margins induced by subduction direction reversal: a numerical modeling study applied to the South China Sea margin 

    Li, Fucheng; Sun, Zhen; Yang, Hongfeng; Lin, Jian; Stock, Joann M.; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Xu, Hehua; Sun, Longtao (American Geophysical Union, 2020-10-06)
    The dynamics of continental breakup at convergent margins has been described as the results of backarc opening caused by slab rollback or drag force induced by subduction direction reversal. Although the rollback hypothesis ...
  • Temperature and strain controls on ice deformation mechanisms: Insights from the microstructures of samples deformed to progressively higher strains at-10,-20 and-30 degrees C 

    Fan, Sheng; Hager, Travis F.; Prior, David J.; Cross, Andrew J.; Goldsby, David L.; Qi, Chao; Negrini, Marianne; Wheeler, John (European Geosciences Union, 2020-11-10)
    In order to better understand ice deformation mechanisms, we document the microstructural evolution of ice with increasing strain. We include data from experiments at relatively low temperatures (−20 and −30 ∘C), where the ...
  • The rheological behavior of CO2 ice: application to glacial flow on Mars 

    Cross, Andrew J.; Goldsby, David L.; Hager, Travis F.; Smith, Isaac B. (American Geophysical Union, 2020-10-29)
    Vast quantities of solid CO2 reside in topographic basins of the south polar layered deposits (SPLD) on Mars and exhibit morphological features indicative of glacial flow. Previous experimental studies showed that CO2 ice ...
  • Hydrothermal plume detection dataset from Chinese cruises to the equatorial East Pacific Rise 

    Chen, Sheng; Tao, Chunhui; German, Christopher R. (Elsevier, 2020-11-20)
    In this data article, a dataset from hydrothermal plume investigations on East Pacific Rise collected during Chinese cruises from 2008 to 2011 is reported. The dataset is related to the research article entitled “Abundance ...
  • Complex subsurface hydrothermal fluid mixing at a submarine arc volcano supports distinct and highly diverse microbial communities 

    Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; St. John, Emily; Meneghin, Jennifer; Flores, Gilberto; Podar, Mircea; Dombrowski, Nina; Spang, Anja; L’Haridon, Stephane; Humphris, Susan E.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Tontini, F. Caratori; Tivey, Maurice A.; Stucker, Valerie; Stewart, Lucy C.; Diehl, Alexander; Bach, Wolfgang (National Academy of Sciences, 2020-12-04)
    Hydrothermally active submarine volcanoes are mineral-rich biological oases contributing significantly to chemical fluxes in the deep sea, yet little is known about the microbial communities inhabiting these systems. Here ...
  • Brucite formation and dissolution in oceanic serpentinite 

    Klein, Frieder; Humphris, Susan E.; Bach, Wolfgang (European Association of Geochemistry, 2020-10-27)
    Brucite is an important, albeit elusive, hydrous mineral formed during serpentinisation, a vector of Mg from the mantle to seawater, and possibly a significant host of water in oceanic serpentinite. However, the abundance ...
  • The heterogeneity and volatile content of Earth’s mantle, magmas and crust 

    Urann, Benjamin M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-02)
    This thesis explores the volatile content of the mantle, subducted oceanic crust, and arc magmas as well as the structure of slow spreading ocean crust and the heterogeneity of Earth’s upper mantle. In Chapter 2, I directly ...
  • Initial cruise report : Chain 115, leg 6 

    Johnson, David A. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1974-06)
    Leg 6 of CHAIN Cruise 115 began in Rio de Janeiro on 22 April 1974, and terminated in Recife on 18 May 1974. A multi-disciplinary scientific program was carried out within the Vema Channel and on the northern flanks of the ...

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