Now showing items 637-656 of 1279

    • The mean age of ocean waters inferred from radiocarbon observations : sensitivity to surface sources and accounting for mixing histories 

      Gebbie, Geoffrey A.; Huybers, Peter (American Meteorological Society, 2012-02)
      A number of previous observational studies have found that the waters of the deep Pacific Ocean have an age, or elapsed time since contact with the surface, of 700–1000 yr. Numerical models suggest ages twice as old. Here, ...
    • The mean along-isobath heat and salt balances over the Middle Atlantic Bight continental shelf 

      Lentz, Steven J. (American Meteorological Society, 2010-05)
      The mean heat and salt balances over the Middle Atlantic Bight continental shelf are investigated by testing the hypothesis that surface fluxes of heat or freshwater are balanced by along-isobath fluxes resulting from the ...
    • Mean biases, variability, and trends in air–sea fluxes and sea surface temperature in the CCSM4 

      Bates, Susan C.; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Jayne, Steven R.; Large, William G.; Stevenson, Samantha; Yeager, Stephen G. (American Meteorological Society, 2012-11-15)
      Air–sea fluxes from the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) are compared with the Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiment (CORE) dataset to assess present-day mean biases, variability errors, and late ...
    • Mean circulation in the coastal ocean off northeastern North America from a regional-scale ocean model 

      Chen, Ke; He, Ruoying (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2015-07-03)
      A regional-scale ocean model was used to hindcast the coastal circulation over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GOM) from 2004 to 2013. The model was nested inside a data assimilative global ocean model ...
    • Mean structure and fluctuations of the Kuroshio east of Taiwan from in situ and remote observations 

      Yang, Yiing-Jang; Jan, Sen; Chang, Ming-Huei; Wang, Joe; Mensah, Vigan; Kuo, Tien-Hsia; Tsai, Cheng-Ju; Lee, Chung-Yaung; Andres, Magdalena; Centurioni, Luca R.; Tseng, Yu-Heng; Liang, Wen-Der; Lai, Jian-Wu (The Oceanography Society, 2015-12)
      The Kuroshio is important to climate, weather prediction, and fishery management along the northeast coast of Asia because it transports tremendous heat, salt, and energy from east of the Philippines to waters southeast ...
    • Mean structure and variability of the cold dome northeast of Taiwan 

      Jan, Sen; Chen, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Ya-Ling; Yang, Yiing-Jang; Wang, Joe; Chern, Ching-Sheng; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G.; Lien, Ren-Chieh; Centurioni, Luca R.; Kuo, Jia-Yu (The Oceanography Society, 2011-12)
      The "cold dome" off northeastern Taiwan is one of the distinctive oceanic features in the seas surrounding Taiwan. The cold dome is important because persistent upwelling makes the region highly biologically productive. ...
    • Mean structure and variability of the Kuroshio from northeastern Taiwan to southwestern Japan 

      Andres, Magdalena; Jan, Sen; Sanford, Thomas B.; Mensah, Vigan; Centurioni, Luca R.; Book, Jeffrey W. (The Oceanography Society, 2015-12)
      In the subtropical western North Pacific Ocean, the Kuroshio delivers heat, salt, and momentum poleward, much like its North Atlantic analog, the Gulf Stream. Though the Kuroshio generally flows along the western boundary ...
    • Measurements and models of fine-structure, internal gravity waves and wave breaking in the deep ocean 

      Eriksen, Charles C. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1976-09)
      Measurements of horizontal and vertical current by propeller cluster current meters and temperature by thermistors mounted on a rigid array 8 m high and 20 m long moored in the oceanic main thermocline near Bermuda are ...
    • Measurements of momentum and heat transfer across the air–sea interface 

      Gerbi, Gregory P.; Trowbridge, John H.; Edson, James B.; Plueddemann, Albert J.; Terray, Eugene A.; Fredericks, Janet J. (American Meteorological Society, 2008-05)
      This study makes direct measurements of turbulent fluxes in the mixed layer in order to close heat and momentum budgets across the air–sea interface and to assess the ability of rigid-boundary turbulence models to predict ...
    • Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary 

      Richards, Clark G.; Bourgault, Daniel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Hay, Alex; Kelley, Daniel E. (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-01-30)
      The shoaling of horizontally propagating internal waves may represent an important source of mixing and transport in estuaries and coastal seas. Including such effects in numerical models demands improvements in the ...
    • The mechanical energy input to the ocean induced by tropical cyclones 

      Liu, Ling Ling; Wang, Wei; Huang, Rui Xin (American Meteorological Society, 2008-06)
      Wind stress and tidal dissipation are the most important sources of mechanical energy for maintaining the oceanic general circulation. The contribution of mechanical energy due to tropical cyclones can be a vitally important ...
    • Mechanical energy input to the world oceans due to atmospheric loading 

      Wang, Wei; Qian, Chengchun; Huang, Rui Xin (2005-08-02)
      Mechanical energy input to the oceans is one of the most important factors controlling the oceanic general circulation. The atmosphere transports mechanical energy to the oceans primarily through wind stress, plus changes ...
    • Mechanism for export of sediment-derived iron in an upwelling regime 

      Siedlecki, Samantha A.; Mahadevan, Amala; Archer, D. E. (American Geophysical Union, 2012-02-11)
      Model simulations performed with a three-dimensional, high-resolution, process study ocean model of eastern boundary upwelling systems are used to describe a mechanism that efficiently transports sediment-derived dissolved ...
    • A mechanism for the latitudinal dependence of peak-spectrum sea surface height variability 

      Lin, Xiaopei; Yin, Yuqi; Yang, Jiayan (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-02-25)
      Previous studies have shown that the power spectrum of satellite-observed sea surface height (SSH) variability peaks at a certain frequency (or a wave number) band at a given latitude. Lin et al. (2008) attributed this ...
    • Mechanisms and variability of salt transport in partially-stratified estuaries 

      Bowen, Melissa M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2000-02)
      The variability of salt transport determines the variation of the length of the salinity intrusion and the large-scale density gradient in an estuary. This thesis contains three studies that address salt transport and ...
    • Mechanisms behind the temporary shutdown of deep convection in the Labrador Sea : lessons from the Great Salinity Anomaly years 1968–71 

      Gelderloos, Renske; Straneo, Fiamma; Katsman, Caroline A. (American Meteorological Society, 2012-10-01)
      From 1969 to 1971 convection in the Labrador Sea shut down, thus interrupting the formation of the intermediate/dense water masses. The shutdown has been attributed to the surface freshening induced by the Great Salinity ...
    • Mechanisms of multidecadal Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability diagnosed in depth versus density space 

      Kwon, Young-Oh; Frankignoul, Claude (American Meteorological Society, 2014-12-15)
      Multidecadal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is examined based on a comparison of the AMOC streamfunctions in depth and in density space, in a 700-yr present-day control integration ...
    • Mechanisms of Pacific Summer Water variability in the Arctic's Central Canada Basin 

      Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Golubeva, Elena; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Krishfield, Richard A.; McCall, Margaret; Platov, Gennady A.; Toole, John M.; Williams, William J.; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-11-10)
      Pacific Water flows northward through Bering Strait and penetrates the Arctic Ocean halocline throughout the Canadian Basin sector of the Arctic. In summer, Pacific Summer Water (PSW) is modified by surface buoyancy fluxes ...
    • Mechanisms of variability in a convective basin 

      Deshayes, Julie; Straneo, Fiamma; Spall, Michael A. (Sears Foundation for Marine Research, 2009-05)
      An idealized model for a convective basin is used to investigate the mechanisms of variability of the formation and export of dense water. In this model, which consists of two isopycnic layers, dense water formation is ...
    • A mechanistic model of mid-latitude decadal climate variability 

      Kravtsov, Sergey K.; Dewar, William K.; Ghil, M.; McWilliams, James C.; Berloff, Pavel S. (2007-08-08)
      A simple heuristic model of coupled decadal ocean–atmosphere modes in middle latitudes is developed. Previous studies have treated atmospheric intrinsic variability as a linear stochastic process modified by a deterministic ...