Now showing items 402-421 of 1334

    • Finescale structure of the T-S relation in the eastern North Atlantic 

      Ferrari, Raffaele; Polzin, Kurt L. (American Meteorological Society, 2005-08)
      Distributions of temperature (T) and salinity (S) and their relationship in the oceans are the result of a balance between T–S variability generated at the surface by air–sea fluxes and its removal by molecular dissipation. ...
    • Finger puzzles 

      Schmitt, Raymond W. (Cambridge University Press, 2012-01-24)
      Salt fingers are a form of double-diffusive convection that can occur in a wide variety of fluid systems, ranging from stellar interiors and oceans to magma chambers. Their amplitude has long been difficult to quantify, ...
    • A finite volume numerical approach for coastal ocean circulation studies : comparisons with finite difference models 

      Chen, Changsheng; Huang, Haosheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Liu, Hedong; Xu, Qichun; Cowles, Geoffrey W. (American Geophysical Union, 2007-03-28)
      An unstructured grid, finite volume, three-dimensional (3-D) primitive equation coastal ocean model (FVCOM) has been developed for the study of coastal ocean and estuarine circulation by Chen et al. (2003a). The finite ...
    • First autonomous bio-optical profiling float in the Gulf of Mexico reveals dynamic biogeochemistry in deep waters 

      Green, Rebecca E.; Bower, Amy S.; Lugo-Fernandez, Alexis (Public Library of Science, 2014-07-03)
      Profiling floats equipped with bio-optical sensors well complement ship-based and satellite ocean color measurements by providing highly-resolved time-series data on the vertical structure of biogeochemical processes in ...
    • The First Law of Thermodynamics in a salty ocean 

      Warren, Bruce A. (2006-01-30)
      The First Law of Thermodynamics is developed from fundamentals for open, non-equilibrium systems of seawater in motion, exchanging salt and freshwater internally and with their surroundings, and varying continuously in ...
    • Flow and hydraulics near the sill of Hood Canal, a strongly sheared, continuously stratified fjord 

      Gregg, M. C.; Pratt, Lawrence J. (American Meteorological Society, 2010-05)
      Hood Canal, a long fjord in Washington State, has strong tides but limited deep-water renewal landward of a complex constriction. Tide-resolving hydrographic and velocity observations at the constriction, with a depth-cycling ...
    • Flow distortion investigation of wind velocity perturbations for two ocean meteorological platforms 

      Emond, Marc; Vandemark, Doug; Forsythe, James; Plueddemann, Albert J.; Farrar, J. Thomas (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2012-03)
      A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was performed of the wind flow around two ocean buoys used to collect meteorological data from sensors mounted on the buoy tower. The CFD approach allowed wind velocity perturbations ...
    • Flow over finite isolated topography 

      Thompson, LuAnne (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1990-11)
      One and two layer models are used to study flow over axisymmetric isolated topography. Inviscid or nearly inviscid flow in which non-linear effects have order one importance is considered, and both the effects of β and ...
    • Flow-induced channelization in a porous medium 

      Mahadevan, Amala; Orpe, A. V.; Kudrolli, A.; Mahadevan, L. (2012-05-17)
      Flow through a saturated, granular, porous medium can lead to internal erosion, preferential flow enhancement and the formation of channels within the bulk of the medium. We examine this phenomenon using a combination ...
    • Foehn winds link climate-driven warming to ice shelf evolution in Antarctica 

      Cape, Mattias R.; Vernet, Maria; Skvarca, Pedro; Marinsek, Sebastian; Scambos, Ted; Domack, Eugene (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-11-03)
      Rapid warming of the Antarctic Peninsula over the past several decades has led to extensive surface melting on its eastern side, and the disintegration of the Prince Gustav, Larsen A, and Larsen B ice shelves. The warming ...
    • Formation and erosion of the seasonal thermocline in the Kuroshio Extension Recirculation Gyre 

      Cronin, Meghan F.; Bond, Nicholas A.; Farrar, J. Thomas; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Jayne, Steven R.; Kawai, Yoshimi; Konda, Masanori; Qiu, Bo; Rainville, Luc; Tomita, Hiroyuki (Elsevier Ltd., 2012-07-21)
      Data from the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO) surface mooring are used to analyze the balance of processes affecting the upper ocean heat content and surface mixed layer temperature variations in the Recirculation ...
    • Formation and export of deep water in the Labrador and Irminger Seas in a GCM 

      Deshayes, Julie; Frankignoul, Claude; Drange, Helge (2006-12-13)
      The influence of changes in the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre on the variability of the transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current is investigated in a realistic hind cast simulation ...
    • The formation and fate of internal waves in the South China Sea 

      Alford, Matthew H.; Peacock, Thomas; MacKinnon, Jennifer A.; Nash, Jonathan D.; Buijsman, Maarten C.; Centurioni, Luca R.; Chao, Shenn-Yu; Chang, Ming-Huei; Farmer, David M.; Fringer, Oliver B.; Fu, Ke-Hsien; Gallacher, Patrick C.; Graber, Hans C.; Helfrich, Karl R.; Jachec, Steven M.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Klymak, Jody M.; Ko, Dong S.; Jan, Sen; Johnston, T. M. Shaun; Legg, Sonya; Lee, I-Huan; Lien, Ren-Chieh; Mercier, Matthieu J.; Moum, James N.; Musgrave, Ruth; Park, Jae-Hun; Pickering, Andrew I.; Pinkel, Robert; Rainville, Luc; Ramp, Steven R.; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Sarkar, Sutanu; Scotti, Alberto; Simmons, Harper L.; St Laurent, Louis C.; Venayagamoorthy, Subhas K.; Wang, Yu-Huai; Wang, Joe; Yang, Yiing-Jang; Paluszkiewicz, Theresa; Tang, Tswen Yung (2015-03)
      Internal gravity waves, the subsurface analogue of the familiar surface gravity waves that break on beaches, are ubiquitous in the ocean. Because of their strong vertical and horizontal currents, and the turbulent mixing ...
    • Formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water in the Red Sea 

      Zhai, Ping; Bower, Amy S.; Smethie, William M.; Pratt, Lawrence J. (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-09-29)
      Hydrographic data, chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) measurements collected in March 2010 and September–October 2011 in the Red Sea, as well as an idealized numerical experiment are used to study ...
    • Formation of intrathermocline eddies at ocean fronts by wind-driven destruction of potential vorticity 

      Thomas, Leif N. (2008-02)
      A mechanism for the generation of intrathermocline eddies (ITEs) at wind-forced fronts is examined using a high resolution numerical simulation. Favorable conditions for ITE formation result at fronts forced by “down-front” ...
    • Formation of Subtropical Mode Water in a high-resolution ocean simulation of the Kuroshio Extension region 

      Rainville, Luc; Jayne, Steven R.; McClean, Julie L.; Maltrud, Mathew E. (2007-03-09)
      A high-resolution numerical model is used to examine the formation and variability of the North Pacific Subtropical ModeWater (STMW) over a 3-year period. The STMW distribution is found to be highly variable in both space ...
    • Four current meter models compared in strong currents in Drake Passage 

      Watts, D. Randolph; Kennelly, Maureen A.; Donohue, Kathleen A.; Tracey, Karen L.; Chereskin, Teresa K.; Weller, Robert A.; Victoria, Ivan (American Meteorological Society, 2013-10)
      Seven current meters representing four models on a stiffly buoyed mooring were placed for an 11-month deployment to intercompare their velocity measurements: two vector-measuring current meters (VMCMs), two Aanderaa recording ...
    • Freshwater and its role in the Arctic Marine System : sources, disposition, storage, export, and physical and biogeochemical consequences in the Arctic and global oceans 

      Carmack, Edward C.; Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo; Haine, Thomas W. N.; Bacon, Sheldon; Bluhm, Bodil; Lique, Camille; Melling, Humfrey; Polyakov, Igor V.; Straneo, Fiamma; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Williams, William J. (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-03-30)
      The Arctic Ocean is a fundamental node in the global hydrological cycle and the ocean's thermohaline circulation. We here assess the system's key functions and processes: (1) the delivery of fresh and low-salinity waters ...
    • Freshwater composition of the waters off southeast Greenland and their link to the Arctic Ocean 

      Sutherland, David A.; Pickart, Robert S.; Jones, E. Peter; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Eert, A. Jane; Olafsson, Jon (American Geophysical Union, 2009-05-27)
      The freshwater composition of waters on the southeast Greenland shelf and slope are described using a set of high-resolution transects occupied in summer 2004, which included hydrographic, velocity, nutrient, and chemical ...
    • Freshwater content variability in the Arctic Ocean 

      Hakkinen, Sirpa M. A.; Proshutinsky, Andrey (American Geophysical Union, 2004-03-31)
      Arctic Ocean model simulations have revealed that the Arctic Ocean has a basin-wide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies (Arctic Ocean Oscillation (AOO)) that has a prominent decadal variability ...