The use of diagnostic imaging for identifying abnormal gas accumulations in cetaceans and pinnipeds
MetadataShow full item record
KeywordComputed tomography; Ultrasound; Magnetic resonance imaging; Cetacean; Decompression sickness; Bends; Pinniped; Gas bubbles
Recent dogma suggested that marine mammals are not at risk of decompression sickness due to a number of evolutionary adaptations. Several proposed adaptations exist. Lung compression and alveolar collapse that terminate gas-exchange before a depth is reached where supersaturation is significant and bradycardia with peripheral vasoconstriction affecting the distribution, and dynamics of blood and tissue nitrogen levels. Published accounts of gas and fat emboli and dysbaric osteonecrosis in marine mammals and theoretical modeling have challenged this view-point, suggesting that decompression-like symptoms may occur under certain circumstances, contrary to common belief. Diagnostic imaging modalities are invaluable tools for the non-invasive examination of animals for evidence of gas and have been used to demonstrate the presence of incidental decompression-related renal gas accumulations in some stranded cetaceans. Diagnostic imaging has also contributed to the recognition of clinically significant gas accumulations in live and dead cetaceans and pinnipeds. Understanding the appropriate application and limitations of the available imaging modalities is important for accurate interpretation of results. The presence of gas may be asymptomatic and must be interpreted cautiously alongside all other available data including clinical examination, clinical laboratory testing, gas analysis, necropsy examination, and histology results.
© The Author(s), 2012. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Frontiers in Physiology 3 (2012): 181, doi:10.3389/fphys.2012.00181.
Suggested CitationFrontiers in Physiology 3 (2012): 181
The following license files are associated with this item:
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Bernaldo de Quirós, Yara; Hartwick, Meghan; Rotstein, David S.; Garner, Michael M.; Bogomolni, Andrea L.; Greer, William; Niemeyer, Misty E.; Early, Greg A.; Wenzel, Frederick W.; Moore, Michael J. (Inter-Research, 2018-01-31)The challenge of identifying cause of death in discarded bycaught marine mammals stems from a combination of the non-specific nature of the lesions of drowning, the complex physiologic adaptations unique to breath-holding ...
Mortality trends of stranded marine mammals on Cape Cod and southeastern Massachusetts, USA, 2000 to 2006 Bogomolni, Andrea L.; Pugliares, Katie R.; Sharp, Sarah M.; Patchett, Kristen; Harry, Charles T.; LaRocque, Jane M.; Touhey, Kathleen M.; Moore, Michael J. (Inter-Research, 2010-01-25)To understand the cause of death of 405 marine mammals stranded on Cape Cod and southeastern Massachusetts between 2000 and 2006, a system for coding final diagnosis was developed and categorized as (1) disease, (2) human ...
Srinivasan, Mridula; Moore, Katie; Sharp, Brian; Wilkin, Sarah; Simeone, Claire; Moore, Michael J. (2017-03-14)This training objective will cover topics related to accurately recording and reporting information received via a variety of sources about a stranded animal and formulating a plan for stranding response.