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dc.contributor.authorMoran, Yehu  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorZakon, Harold H.  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2014-10-02T14:35:57Z
dc.date.available2014-10-02T14:35:57Z
dc.date.issued2014-08-21
dc.identifier.citationGenome Biology and Evolution 6 (2014): 2210-2217en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/6885
dc.description© The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Genome Biology and Evolution 6 (2014): 2210-2217, doi:10.1093/gbe/evu177.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe alpha subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels (Cavs) are large transmembrane proteins responsible for crucial physiological processes in excitable cells. They are assisted by three auxiliary subunits that can modulate their electrical behavior. Little is known about the evolution and roles of the various subunits of Cavs in nonbilaterian animals and in nonanimal lineages. For this reason, we mapped the phyletic distribution of the four channel subunits and reconstructed their phylogeny. Although alpha subunits have deep evolutionary roots as ancient as the split between plants and opistokonths, beta subunits appeared in the last common ancestor of animals and their close-relatives choanoflagellates, gamma subunits are a bilaterian novelty and alpha2/delta subunits appeared in the lineage of Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Bilateria. We note that gene losses were extremely common in the evolution of Cavs, with noticeable losses in multiple clades of subfamilies and also of whole Cav families. As in vertebrates, but not protostomes, Cav channel genes duplicated in Cnidaria. We characterized by in situ hybridization the tissue distribution of alpha subunits in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a nonbilaterian animal possessing all three Cav subfamilies common to Bilateria. We find that some of the alpha subunit subtypes exhibit distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns. Further, all six sea anemone alpha subunit subtypes are conserved in stony corals, which separated from anemones 500 MA. This unexpected conservation together with the expression patterns strongly supports the notion that these subtypes carry unique functional roles.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherOxford University Pressen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evu177
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
dc.subjectVoltage-gated calcium channelen_US
dc.subjectIon channelen_US
dc.subjectCnidariaen_US
dc.subjectNematostella vectensisen_US
dc.subjectEvolution of nervous systemen_US
dc.titleThe evolution of the four subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels : ancient roots, increasing complexity, and multiple lossesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1093/gbe/evu177


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Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International