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dc.contributor.authorDavidson, Keith  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorGowen, Richard J.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorHarrison, Paul J.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorFleming, Lora E.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorHoagland, Porter  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMoschonas, Grigorios  Concept link
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Environmental Management 146 (2014): 206-216en_US
dc.description© The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Journal of Environmental Management 146 (2014): 206-216, doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.002.en_US
dc.description.abstractHarmful algal blooms (HABs) are thought to be increasing in coastal waters worldwide. Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment has been proposed as a principal causative factor of this increase through elevated inorganic and/or organic nutrient concentrations and modified nutrient ratios. We assess: 1) the level of understanding of the link between the amount, form and ratio of anthropogenic nutrients and HABs; 2) the evidence for a link between anthropogenically generated HABs and negative impacts on human health; and 3) the economic implications of anthropogenic nutrient/HAB interactions. We demonstrate that an anthropogenic nutrient-HAB link is far from universal, and where it has been demonstrated, it is most frequently associated with high biomass rather than low biomass (biotoxin producing) HABs. While organic nutrients have been shown to support the growth of a range of HAB species, insufficient evidence exists to clearly establish if these nutrients specifically promote the growth of harmful species in preference to benign ones, or if/how they influence toxicity of harmful species. We conclude that the role of anthropogenic nutrients in promoting HABs is site-specific, with hydrodynamic processes often determining whether blooms occur. We also find a lack of evidence of widespread significant adverse health impacts from anthropogenic nutrient-generated HABs, although this may be partly due to a lack of human/animal health and HAB monitoring. Detailed economic evaluation and cost/benefit analysis of the impact of anthropogenically generated HABs, or nutrient reduction schemes to alleviate them, is also frequently lacking.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThe work described here is based in part on a project ‘Harmful Algae, Nuisance Blooms and Anthropogenic Nutrient Enrichment’ funded by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (contract ME2208). In addition KD was supported by the FP7 project Asimuth and funding from the NERC Shelf Seas Biogeochemistry and PURE Associates programmes. PJH was supported by University Grants Council of Hong Kong AoE project (AoE/P-04/0401). PH and LEF were funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) Award 1009106; LEF was funded in part by the European Regional Development Fund and European Social Fund (University of Exeter, Truro, Cornwall, UK). GM was supported by a NERC PhD studentship.en_US
dc.rightsAttribution 3.0 Unported*
dc.subjectHarmful algal bloomsen_US
dc.subjectAnthropogenic nutrientsen_US
dc.subjectHuman healthen_US
dc.subjectEconomic impacten_US
dc.titleAnthropogenic nutrients and harmful algae in coastal watersen_US

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Attribution 3.0 Unported
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 3.0 Unported